نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 کارشناس ارشد معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه صنعتی جندی شاپور دزفول
2 عضو هیئت علمی گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه صنعتی جندی شاپور دزفول
عنوان مقاله [English]
Some of the most impressive displays of delicate plaster work can be found when we look up in a space in Islamic Iranian architecture. Plaster is an ideal medium for decorative work, because it can take fine detail. It is also versatile: plaster can be formed into ornate, multi-layered ceiling medallions, intricate friezes replete with scrolls and swags, or long runs of coved cornice work. Plaster can be cast, shaped, carved, sculpted, sanded, or cut. When Islam opened a new view to art philosophy, it affected the ornament style in Iranian architecture. If one had to choose the defining material of Muslim culture, it would, without a doubt, be stucco. In contemporary history, plaster has been considered a relatively poor material, probably due to its lack of application in heavy duty building work, its easy handling and the simple process it takes to transform it from rock mineral. But, human dexterity, particularly that of Muslim artisans, helped to produce designs in stucco, and numerous buildings decorated with that technique have survived for us to admire. Architectural decoration has been one of the most resilient of the Islamic arts. The partial and more often overall decoration of buildings has been a characteristic feature of Islamic architecture from the eighth century onwards. Religious monuments as well as secular complexes have been decorated with an array of styles and techniques that reflected the multiplicity of Muslim societies and their cultural expressions. The importance given to decorating one's built environment has also been applied to temporary settlements such as tented encampments. Islamic plasterwork covers almost every single surface of walls, arches, vaults and ceilings, gaining an almost textile-like quality through their intricate ornament and vibrant palette of colours. Its almost overwhelming appearance is the result of the interconnection and superimposition of different ornamental elements: calligraphic inscriptions, geometric lazo. The interior decorations are centered on the mihrab. In fact, one can find almost all elements and methods of decoration on and around this symbolic place. There is a harmonious and creative co-existence between plaster, marble and brass. In addition, the mihrab typifies the beautiful marriage of all methods of decoration, especially geometry, floriation, calligraphy. The main roll of mihrab and its decoration became a mainstream in aesthetic orientation in Iranian art and architecture that spread to numerous architectural types such as schools to houses. One of the types of secular architecture is the house. Therefore, in order to evaluate this hypothesis and find the answer to the question: In what period are Chohar-soffeh decorations of Dosiran village rooted? the authors attempted to gather the information about Dosiran’s Chohar-soffeh houses and their decorations, and then examined the characteristics of these decorations and index samples similar to them in the history of the country and finally made a comparative comparison of the physical content of these samples. The research method includes survey, analytical-descriptive and interpretive-historical methods. Research data were obtained through field surveys, personal observations, and library documents. The research tool is logical inference and comparative comparison based on Carry-Walk-Method. Finally, it was concluded that two types of these inscriptions have a body similar to the plaster altars of the Ilkhanid period and in terms of content have the salient features of the plasterwork of this period; nevertheless, works of art combining the late Sassanid and early Islamic periods can also be seen in the drawings of all these inscriptions. The ornaments of Dosiran’s Chohar-soffehs, due to their appearance, organization and special content, as well as the way they are placed on the walls of the plates and the level of rib vaults, have given double value to the mansions of Gholam Hossein Naderi and Koohyar Dashti. These inscriptions include five different shapes and three general patterns. From the studies and comparisons, it was concluded that the Dosiran’s Chohar-soffehs strongly show the artistic course of the country from the late Sassanid period to the Ilkhanid period due to having well-known and important designs in the art history of Iran such as arabesques and Khataee motifs, flowers, knots (Gereh) and significant objects, which are mainly rooted in the Islamic period, as well as representing distinctive features such as great similarity to the valuable and sacred pattern of the altar in Islamic art and architecture, indicative features of Ilkhanid altars, using similar motifs to widely used motifs of the Sassanid era, the application of the natural form of plants and important techniques such as Muqarnas and honeysuckle (Laneh Zanbouri) ornament. The appearance and origins of the drawings of these inscriptions and the adapted examples are evidence of this claim; because despite the existence of continuity and artistic connection in the history of the country, some artistic features are specific to a particular period of history and are less considered in later periods. However, in Dosiran’s Chohar-soffehs, the characteristics of the bedrock of several periods are shown together.