نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکترای، گروه معماری، واحد شهرکرد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شهرکرد، ایران
2 گروه مرمت، دانشکده مرمت، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان،
3 استاد تمام، دانشکده تاریخ جهان اسلام، دانشگاه اصفهان و معاونت پژوهشی موسسه آموزشعالیسپهر اصفهان
عنوان مقاله [English]
The two styles of Razi and Azari are effective styles in the Iranian architecture. The Razi style, originated from Rey, began in the Ziyarid dynasty and continued to exist in Buyid, Seljuks, Atabeks and Khwarezmid dynasties. Some architectural characteristic features of this style include the prevalence of domed mosques and the transformation of columned mosques into mosques with porches. In this style, there was an increase in the use of stucco and brick ornament, and images of different types were created. The Azari style was formed in Azerbaijan by the Ilkhanid dynasty. Some believe that, in terms of technique and variety of shapes, the summit of stucco ornaments in the Iranian architecture is related to this period. In general, ornaments in the Ilkhanid period are the succession of those in the Seljuks, yet they are more delicate and intricate. In this style, height is in focus. One of the common characteristics of the ornaments in these two styles is the use of decorations over joints in brick bonds. In the previous studies, ‘shape’ has not been a criterion in the typology of this kind of architectural ornaments; however, the present study has considered it. Regarding the significance of this topic and the shortage of resources, this study aims to present a comprehensive classification of decorations over joints in brick bonds from the perspective of ‘shape’. Therefore, it seeks to answer the following questions: (1) What are the various types of decorations of brick bonds (according to their positioning between the bricks, the shape of the frame and patterns, and their way of distribution) in mosques located in Isfahan belonging to the Razi and Azari styles? (2) What are the similarities and differences between the Razi and Azari styles considering the classification of bonding decorations? (3) How has been the shape transformation of stamps from the Razi style to the Azari style? Since many typical examples of these styles have been built in Isfahan, the samples were chosen from this region. The study used a qualitative research method and was applied in terms of purpose. It was conducted inductively according to the combined strategy. The data was collected using library as well as field resources. The analyses showed that as to their arrangement and positioning between joints, brick-bonding decorations fall into three major categories of horizontal, vertical and diagonal. They are of seven types based on the shape of the main frame (square, rectangle, circle, crossed, toranj, convex and concave polygon). Regarding shape, these decorations are of three major types (fractal geometry, rotating and combined) and has some sub-types of geometric, plant and linear patterns and chain-like strips. Moreover, as to their distribution, five types were identified: complete, half, quarter, recurring and combined. In many of the samples of the Azari style, stamps have created fractal geometry patterns alongside each other, such as floral or inscription. After the simple type of arrangement, the dominant patterns in bond arrangements, especially in the Azari style, are the concealed and stretcher floral bonds. In the Razi style, a single pattern is mostly used on one level while in the Azari style, stamps are varied in terms of size and the type of pattern. In the majority of samples, the highly employed frames were quadrilateral (square and rectangle) and convex polygon stamp frames, respectively. In the Razi style, patterns have usually less depth and simple fractal geometry patterns. However, in the Azari style, patterns are more prominent and complex. Thuluth inscriptions in stamps are used only in the Azari style. Only one sample from eslimi patterns (floral rotating geometry) in the Razi style was identified whose evolution can be found in the Azari style. Many of the stamp decorations in the Azari style were in written form. A combination of curve lines and complex decorations in the background, moreover, has created a kind of thuluth inscriptions known as mosalsal or Ilkhanid inscriptions. Besides, in an attempt to save time and create more delicacy in the Azari style, a kind of fake stamp and brick pattern has been made on a layer of plaster. In this method, a thin layer of plaster has been spread over brick parapet on which brickwork and stamp pattern have been simulated in a fake way. In the background of some of the stamps with inscriptions in the Azari style, dragon-like patterns have been used. From among the samples that were examined, Jame mosques of Isfahan and Ashtarjan have the most comprehensive samples in terms of variety in stamp decorations. The present study is first to present a comprehensive typology of stamp decorations by taking ‘shape’ into consideration. Unlike the previous studies in which time period were mainly emphasized, this study focused on architectural methods and attempted to identify the similarities and differences between the two styles of Razi and Azari.