نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 گروه پژوهش و تاریخ هنر، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران
2 استادیار گروه پژوهش هنر، دانشکده هنر ومعماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس
عنوان مقاله [English]
Justice is one of the main issues of Iranshahri political thought and a universal concept. In Iranshahri's thought, justice is the explanation of a political situation based on which the social order coincides with the cosmic order. This idea of justice as the establisher of social order is the main function of Kings. Regulating the relationship between the king and the subjects was one of the most important issues of justice. But the realization of this function required the benefit of the Iranian race and recognition of the sacred cosmic order by the King. After this recognition, the king acquiring the wisdom of the just king could be possible. Acquiring this knowledge was possible only through the education of the king by the wise minister. Also, for the continuation of the political system, it was mandatory for the successor of the king, to be trained by a wise minister. Therefore, the role of the wise minister as well as his method of Andarzname was important. Andarzaname was an instructive expression of political wisdom in the context of the story and includes an important aspect of the history of Iranian thought. The aesthetic requirements of the Andraznamei method shape many artistic and literary works of Iran. Therefore, the most important updates of Iranshahri political thought have been formed in Persian arts and literature. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the tradition of Andarzname and the political aspects of that, to be able to understand many subtleties of the works left over from Iranian art and literature.
According to what was mentioned, it is noteworthy that during the Timurid era, the issue of realization and continuity of justice in society was considered an essential principle for the rulers. justice of the king is emphasized in many texts of this period. Also, it was common to adapt or reproduce a copy of the important texts of Andrzanameh, with the aim of transferring knowledge and political wisdom. On this basis, Khamsa of Nizami was considered in this era. The copy of Or 6810 preserved in the British Royal Library, which was one of the products of the court library of Sultan Hossein Baiqara, is one of the most exquisite copies of Khamsa Nizami, with a collection of Iranian arts. Also, this version contains a painting with the subject of the Khovarnaq Palace painted by the artist Kamaluddin Behzad. Considering the importance of Khamsa of Nizami and the art of painting in the Andrazname tradition, it is important to consider the various aspects of the manifestation of justice in this painting as one of the prominent works of Iranian art.
In this painting, the subjects are building a palace for the king. As noticed, The relationship between the subjects and the king was one of the main aspects of the concept of justice, which is depicted in this painting. Therefore the aim of this article is to cognition of relationship between the concept of justice and Iranian painting. The research method is descriptive-analytical and historical. The method of data collection is documentary and library. In this article, the Miniature of the Khovarnaq Palace is analyzed as a case study. Based on this, in this study, the question was raised what is the relationship between Khamsa of Nizami's account of the building of Khovarnaq Palace and its depiction by Kamaluddin Behzad with the necessity of establishing and continuing justice during the reign of Sultan Hossein Baiqara? The necessity and importance of this article are also in the study of Iranian art as a subject with multiple aspects. On the one hand, it is important to examine the socio-political aspects of Iranian art, and on the other hand, how to find the relationship between socio-political aspects and aesthetics. The obtained results show that the painting of the Khovarnaq Palace building is one of the works of the Andarzname tradition and reveals the necessity of the ruler's attention to the establishment and continuation of justice. In the context of the narrative of Khamseh Nizami and considering the historical events during the rule of Hossein Baiqara, several layers of meaning are formed when facing this image. In this painting, with the beauty of repeating, the shape of the bricks, the color of the palace, arrangement of the workers, an image of justice is brought to Sultan's attention. Also, the need for the sultan to pay attention to the continuation of justice, the relationship of educating the successor of the king, and maintaining the community's jobs becomes a central aspect. In another layer of this painting, the issue of maintaining the jobs of professors and artists is also raised. By objectifying the most important aspects of justice in Iranshahri's thought, this painting has made justice in Armanshahr its main subject.