عنوان مقاله [English]
Mankind has always tried to achieve his desires by relying on occult sciences and the conquest of superior powers. This science has gone through a long history without any beginning date and no historical period has been excluded from it, because phenomena such as eclipses, comets, earthquakes, epidemics, wars, unfair taxes, etc. have always existed, and all have caused personal concern and insecurity. While human beings were defenseless against natural and unnatural factors, diseases, etc., occult sciences came to help mankind as a transcendental force, and with the help of amulets, spells, medical magic utensils, etc., brought him peace and security. The large number of written sources related to occult sciences is proof of this claim. Due to the connection of these sciences, especially talismans with images, some of these written sources are illustrated, because in order to practice talismans and enchantment, drawing pictures was also necessary.
Daqa’iq al-Haqa’iq (Degrees of Truths); is one of these illustrated manuscripts which its paintings have not yet been examined. The images in this version are so valuable because they provide us with extensive information on the beliefs of Muslim elders in Minor Asia during the Seljuk period. The combination of occult sciences such as talisman, conjuring planets, chemistry, and astrology has influenced the formation of this book. This version was illustrated in Anatolia by al-Nasiri (Nasir al-Din Muhammad b. Ibrahim b. 'Abd Allah al-Rammal al-Mu'azzim al Sa'ati al-Haykali), extant in a Persian copy dated A.H. 10 Ramadan 670 and Shawwal 671. This manuscript was presented to Kay Khusraw III, one of the last Rum Seljuk rulers, when he was a child. This manuscript can be divided into three main parts. Its three treatises deal with astrology, angelology (study of angels), talismans, and magic, and emphasize prognostication. Its treatises have 51 paintings painted by the scribe.
The first part of the book, which has no name, can be divided into two parts. The first part is related to talismans, the titles of which include revealing the secrets of the twenty-eight mansion of the moon, and the main text includes departures to summon the clients, including the names of God, the names of angels, verses from the Qur'an, tribal letters, and magic squares. The paintings in the version include images such as crabs and the moon, dragons, snakes, rams, etc., which have been depicted in order to summon the clients of life and achieve different desires. The second part deals with the rules of astronomy and it is determined what works are best to do in each month.
This research seeks to study the concept of a painting that shows a man riding a bird in iconological way. As we know, iconology has three basic stages that can reveal the apparent and hidden semantic layers of patterns. The main question raised in this research is: What is the reason for using the painting of a man riding a bird in this book based on the iconology approach? This painting is based on what beliefs? And are these beliefs of Iranian origin? Where can we find the origin of this painting? The importance and necessity of examining the images in this version are due to their contribution to extend previous knowledge of the beliefs of the predecessors and the illustration of occult sciences in the seventh century. To answer this question with the iconological method, after describing the role of the man riding the bird and studying the text of the book, written sources with illustrations that have a similar theme have been collected to help us understand the reason of using this painting and its hidden roots. The above mentioned process led to the interpretation of the image of a man riding a bird.
The most important result of the descriptive-analytical research is that the reason of using this painting is related to Indian cosmological concepts. Iran and India have had close historical ties over time. Over the millions of years, the country has had many cultural exchanges in language, religion, art, culture, food, and other traditions. This painting can be considered as one of these cultural exchanges, which must have been inspired by the goose (Hamsa) vahana (vehicle) of Brahma, the god of Jupiter, or Garuda, the vahana of Vishnu which is associated with Mercury.