عنوان مقاله [English]
With the presence of Iranian artists in the court of the Mughal rulers in the subcontinent from 1549 AD, a new form of Mughal painting was created, combining two Hindu-Persian styles, which has left significant works. The present study investigates the effect of Iranian miniature paintings on Pakistani miniatures (1947-2021). After the independence of Pakistan and India in 1947, Pakistani artists, for political reasons, sought to create a new art form in which little influence of Indian art could be seen. In this way, the efforts of Pakistani artists to achieve artistic independence were accompanied by the influence of Indian and Iranian Muslim art during the mughal period, and thus created the basis for an independent artistic identity. For this reason, by studying the works of painting in Pakistan, one can clearly see the impact of Iranian painting on Pakistani painting in different periods. The purpose of this study is to identify and deeply understand the richness of the impact of Iranian painting on Pakistani painting and study the artistic elements in their miniatures, so the research is based on this and the focus is on: what elements of the Iranian style in miniature art Is there a new Pakistan? How are these elements represented in Pakistani miniatures? In this research, the data were collected by the descriptive-analytical method by referring to library documents and resources along with a selected representation of Pakistani paintings; The tremendous influence of the Iranian style on Pakistani works, especially the new miniature art of present-day Pakistan, was evident; Although over time this effect has been associated with various shortcomings and changes, but it has not completely disappeared.
If we consider the painting styles related to Tabriz, Shiraz, Herat, Bukhara and other places to represent the main traditional styles of Iranian painting, after the Muslim invasion of the Indian subcontinent, these styles crystallized into a new art form, mainly from Iran. They entered this area. Of course, the styles inspired by Iran, along with the developments of Moria art in the third century BC and the developments in the Mughal arts in the sixteenth century AD, quickly and dramatically changed in each case under the influence of the Indian artistic environment and taste. Perhaps the main reason for this artistic exchange is the strong interrelationships between the two regions in antiquity and also after the middle Ages. It was the Islamic civilization of India or other neighbouring civilizations and had considerable resistance to change, so it is not surprising that the Iranian spirit, which was still evident throughout the Indian subcontinent, stemmed from much older influences than Islamic influences. These influences were later reinforced by many of the Mughal kings and rulers of India due to their friendly relations with Iran.
Another major factor in the direct impact of Iranian miniature art on the subcontinent was the migration of prominent artists from Iran to India after the establishment of the Safavid rule and the spread of Iranian painting and miniature art in the subcontinent. Therefore, the aim of this study is to understand the depth and richness of the impact of Iranian art on Pakistani art as part of the subcontinent and to study the artistic elements in their miniatures.
For this purpose, first, a summary of Mughal miniature art before and after the arrival of Muslims in India is given, then the contemporary miniature art of Pakistan is studied by analyzing the works of two contemporary Pakistani artists from a selected list of Pakistani artists after independence. The present study is important because unfortunately today only a little recorded evidence of Pakistani miniature art remains, so the study of traditional Pakistani miniature art can be a basis for recognizing and preserving this art for the use of other artists in research. Provided the future.
Keywords: Iranian painting, Pakistani painting, Indian Mughals.