عنوان مقاله [English]
The Sacred Defense is an influential part of the history of the Islamic Revolution of Iran, which evokes many human values. The Sacred Defense Memorial is one of the ways to respond to the recording of historical events and to commemorate the values of that time which is manifested in the form of different bodies with different materials and tells the epic of eight years of stability in different ways. The Sacred Defense Memorial can be divided into three types: narrative-based, symbol-oriented and concept-oriented in terms of the way it deals with the subject and how different generations of the country interact in the face of any difference. The purpose of the above research is recognizing the best type of Sacred Defense monument from the point of view of two generations of the time of Sacred Defense and subsequent generations. The question of the present study was that which category is chosen by the generation of the time of the Sacred Defense and the generations after it, in the face of the monuments of the Sacred Defense, in order to preserve and transmit the values and collective memories of the Sacred Defense?
The method of the present study is a combination of descriptive-analytical and survey methods. The method of gathering information was to collect documentary sources related to the Sacred Defense for the characteristics of the experimental arts and architecture of the Sacred Defense. Then, field studies were conducted by visiting, interviewing and distributing a questionnaire among the visitors of the garden of the Museum of Sacred Defense in Tehran. The sample of the present study is 350 visitors of the garden of the Museum of Sacred Defense in Tehran. According to Morgan's table, they were selected by random sampling according to the statistics of museum visitors, and 30 experts familiar with the values and symbols of the Sacred Defense who had a history of presence at the front were selected from experts in the field of Sacred Defense, as well as architecture specialists who some had a history of sacrifice and Sacred Defense. The method of analysis is with the help of spss26 software and by comparing the frequency tables of the answers of the two generations of the time of the Sacred Defense and after that. It has been analyzed and discussed, then with Friedman nonparametric test, the relationship between the components of the concept of designing Sacred Defense monuments was assessed by experts and specialists. The results show that the audience of the generation of the Sacred Defense era and subsequent generations, all agree to keep the values of Sacred Defense alive by designing Sacred Defense monuments. Meanwhile, the generation of the Sacred Defense era prefers symbolic monuments while generations after the Sacred Defense prefer concept-based monuments for a better communication and understanding of Sacred Defense. Symbolism in the art of the Sacred Defense era made that generation have a mental knowledge and memory of those symbols. The selection of symbolic monuments centered on the Sacred Defense by the generation of the time of the Sacred Defense is all based on their knowledge and sense of belonging to the symbolic and epic concepts of the Sacred Defense era which expresses the courage, bravery, bravery of warriors and martyrs with a striking and firm look and tone. In contrast, Generations after the era of Sacred Defense, since it has no memory of the time of the Sacred Defense, has sought to discover the concept of memory. Concept-based monuments that express the spirit and concept of the message hidden in the subject with an abstract expression in the body of the monument and in the face of it need more reflection and are designed separately for each subject and in each specific place, considered by the next generation. It is the Sacred Defense and it can help transmit the values and memories of the Sacred Defense to the third and fourth generations of the revolution. People with university education have chosen concept-based monuments and people with non-university education have chosen more symbolic monuments which shows that the new generation, most of whom have a university education, in the face of the Sacred Defense Memorial, seek to discover the concept of abstract message and seek more reflection to recognize values. Audiences of both generations agree with the placement of the monument near a cultural complex as well as the presence of sacred and natural elements in the design of the Sacred Defense monument. On the importance of influential components on the architectural design concept of Sacred Defense monuments, paying attention to the existence of a multi-purpose space and considering a space for religious ceremonies along with the memorial is considered effective by experts and designers in better transmitting the values and memories of the Sacred Defense to generations after the Sacred Defense.