عنوان مقاله [English]
Literature and art of each nation are among fundamental bases of its culture. Epic, lyrical, didactic, religious and mystical literature are among the most widely used themes in art that have become the sources of creating lasting works and the richness of Iranian painting. Khamsa of Nizami is among popular literary sources that has been considered by artists in different periods and illustrated by painters. One of the valuable versions of this masterpiece of Persian literature is the version related to the year 1504 AD, which coincides with the year 909 AH, in the Bodleian Library of Oxford University, which was added to its digital library in 2019. The signature at the end of this version indicates that this version was written during Turkmen rule over Shiraz. This version can be studied in terms of aesthetic qualities and features with the stylistic features of Shiraz school which are among the recognizable features in that form and manner of combining elements. In this research, an attempt has been made to analyze and to identify the structure of the design and the formal and visual features of Khamsa of Nizami's figures in the Bodleian Library. Also, another purpose of this is to study the relationship between these figures and the stylistic features of Shiraz school. The research questions include: 1- What are the visual features and design structure and composition in the figures of Khamsa of Nizami's version? 2- Is there a relationship between these figures and the stylistic features of Shiraz school? In terms of purpose, the present article is a fundamental-theoretical type which has been conducted using a descriptive-analytical method. The method of data collection is documentary, library-based. A total of 30 figures of the desired Khamsa of Nizami's version were studied as statistical population and the authors examined 6 figures of the most prominent figures that have the most structural diversity selected by judgmental or purposive sampling (non-probability sampling) based on the considered components using qualitative data analysis method. The results of the research indicate that the figures of this version can be divided into five groups in terms of content, of which 11 figures have instructive themes, 7 figures have romantic assemblies themes, 6 figures have war assemblies themes, 2 figures have festive assemblies themes and 4 figures have common themes. In the study of the determined components, the results of the research indicate a kind of unity and integration in the formal structure of the figures in such a way that the viewing angle, frame of the pages and its coloring, the non-interference of the text in the image, the same number of strata of image, and the placement of the main elements in the second stratum have been observed in almost all assemblies. Also, the book size is in the style of Iskandar ("Alexander") Sultan's period and almost close to the Vaziri size (Medium octavo). In addition, the figures are single-sheet and faces have moods and express emotional feelings and sentiments. The compositional structure of the figures is simple and mostly based on the vertical and horizontal system, which, of course, in a few cases, such as the figure of Shirin Meets Farhad, the artist has used the circular system in a rudimentary manner. simplicity mixed with precision in drawing visual elements, significance of human figures and transforming them into the most important parts of the images, simplicity, solitude, and smallness of natural landscapes and framed drawing of plants and turning them into filling spaces, using mixed colors such as purple, light green, blue in several tonnages, which marks the beginning of using this kind of color in later schools and the conscious use of past agreements to create a link between text and image and to create more visual appeal are other visual features. This version jointly combines the components of the Turkmen royal court, such as rich and exciting colors and exciting moods and faces, along with the commercial components of this method, such as simple combinations and unadulterated natural landscapes. Finally, the existing features and quality of the figures of this version are in proportion to the stylistic features of Shiraz Turkmen School and the aesthetic effect of the figures when viewing the work can be understood by the forms and their combination together.