عنوان مقاله [English]
By examining the historical roots in the culture of beliefs and convictions of societies, we encounter narratives and myths which play a colorful role in the formation of the visual culture of past nations and civilizations. According to a tradition, the content of myths reflects ethnic customs and traditions, beliefs, and cultural approaches of societies, which have been manifested in art, which can be examined in the form of archetypes. Therefore, in spite of all the complexities, there is a kind of harmony and closeness in their main themes in the mythological archetypes, which makes a comparative study of these narrations possible .One of the oldest mythological archetypes is the myth of the mother goddess and goddess, which is one of the most influential and meaningful gods in the lives of ancient people. The oldest of them is called the goddess Inana which dates back to 3500 BC. In Mesopotamia whose image and symbols have been displayed in the art of different historical periods of Mesopotamia. the text of this myth is written on twenty tablets and several fragments and is kept in the museum of the Ancient East of Istanbul, the museums of universities of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia and, Bail. The tablets were read and studied by Kramer. The Sumerian text of the poem was published in 1952 AD by the University of Pennsylvania museum. the story consists of three parts, which are :1- the relationship of Inana, the queen of Heaven with Enki, the god of water, wisdom and motto 2- the marriage of Inana and Dumuzì, which is known as the Holy marriage 3- the journey to earth is irreversible. On the other hand, in Lorestan region, bronze artifacts with a female motif have been obtained, which belong to the first and the second millennia BC. Works and their designs can be considered as links between the civilizations of Mesopotamia and the art of ancient Iran. These motifs in terms of form, structure, and aesthetic principles reflect the beliefs and beliefs of ancient people therefore, it is necessary to study these works based on new approaches and theories. Therefore the purpose of this study is to represent and to express common features between images of women in Lorestan bronzes and Mesopotamian goddesses based on comparative and in textual studies to identify the religious beliefs of this period and its relationship with Mesopotamian civilization .Now, considering the proximity of these two regions and the background of the presence of the female goddess in Mesopotamian mythology and art and its role in the applied arts of Lorestan region, the purpose of this study is to identify the visual relationship between the role of women in the pinheads of Lorestan and the Mesopotamian goddess in order to discover the common intellectual heritage between these two regions. The questions raised in the research are:
What common aspects and differences are observed between the role of women in the works of Lorestan and the Mesopotamian goddesses?
According to Young’s archetypes, how are the common cultural ties between the two regions interpreted?
Research method: the research method in this articles is descriptive analytical, in the process of which, while introducing and describing the content and features of Inana myth, the analysis of works of art has been done, which deals with Mesopotamian cylindrical seals and bronze works of Lorestan. The data collection tool is library-based, thus, the role of Inana -Ishtar in the cylindrical seals of the old Sumerian to Cassian period was first investigated based on the two catalogs of Null and the catalog of William and Moory to achieve the goal. Then, the bronze works of Lorestan with the motif of a woman were studied. Thus, 114 objects of Lorestan bronze objects were examined. Among them, 60 objects had female motifs. For this study, only female motifs on circular pins were used, and 20 of them were selected for comparative comparison with Mesopotamian seals’ designs. In this way, images were created from the designs created of the goddess Inana Ishtar on Mesopotamian works and the motif of a woman on the head of Lorestan bronze pins, and the analysis of these motifs is based on design, composition, visual elements, and archetypes. Result: The results show that the institutional philosophical thought in the myth of the female goddess is procreation and fertility and the inhabitants of both lands had similar concepts of the female goddess. The style of show in the art of both societies is realistic, but there is a difference in the style of execution. According to archetypes, the difference in appearance and coverage is the result of the environmental and historical conditions of societies. Thus, the people of both regions were influenced by regional beliefs to express their mythical ideas.