عنوان مقاله [English]
Achaemenid art is a royal art that has appeared in line with the propaganda goals of kings and mostly in the form of wall and rock reliefs. According to most scholars, Darius I (reign 486-522 BC) had the greatest role and influence in the formation of this art. Behistun's relief is the only historical-artistic work of the Achaemenids and a monument to the victories of Darius I over his opponents and enemies, which was erected at the beginning of his reign. The relief of Darius's tomb in Naqsh-e-Rostam, although a memorial to the deceased king, was erected during Darius's lifetime and under his supervision. The aim of the present research is to conduct a visual and semantical study of Darius’s image as the most important common element in the reliefs of Behistun and his tomb and to explain the relationship between the image of the king and other visual elements in these works. Further knowledge of the art and ideology of the Achaemenids, a better understanding of the motifs of the tombs of the Achaemenid kings and a clearer picture of the concept of king and god in the official Achaemenid art are among of the sub-objectives of this study. The research questions are: 1. What does the image of Darius show in the reliefs of Behistun and Naqsh-e Rostam, and what is the relationship between these two images? 2. What is the main line of communication between the reliefs of Behistun and the tomb of Darius and what does it mean? 3. What is the difference between the images of Darius in the two reliefs and where does this difference come from? The research method is descriptive-historical-analytical and the required information has been collected from library sources. In this article, the image of the Achaemenid king and other visual elements in two reliefs of Behistun and the tomb of Darius are examined and an attempt is made to show a clearer image of Darius as the most influential Achaemenid king in their official art. Research findings show these results: In the relief of Behistun, the image of Darius represents the victorious and powerful Persian emperor who was chosen by the great god (Ahuramazda) and with the will of his god and the support of his allies and armies, was able to defeat the lying enemies and rebels and protect the order and unity of the vast Achaemenid empire. The image of Darius in Naqsh-e-Rostam shows the powerful, religious (pious) Persian emperor who was the chosen ruler of Ahuramazda and, with the will of his God and the support of his companions, had a powerful and just reign over many countries. He has now left his worldly position and is ready to go to another world with peace of mind. The image of Darius in Naqsh-e Rostam has many similarities and connections with his image in Behistun. The image of the victorious and powerful Persian king in Behistun is repeated with changes in Naqsh-e Rostam; the image of Darius in Naqsh-e Rostam is a representation of his image in Behistun. Despite similarities such as the armed men standing behind Darius and his portrayal as the emperor of many lands, the main visual line connecting the two reliefs is Darius standing in front of Ahuramazda in a two-way, unique relationship. Common elements of this line of communication include: 1. The king of Persia, who holds the bow of dominion in a similar way in his left hand, stands to the right and raises his hand towards Ahuramazda. 2. Ahuramazda, who appears in the form of a Persian man inside a similar winged circle in the center of the stage and above Darius, holds the crown of the kingdom towards the king and raises his right hand in a two-way relationship with him. The meaning of this common line of communication was that the Achaemenid king was chosen and helped by the great god (Ahuramazda) to rule the world (many lands); therefore, his actions and reign were in line with the truth and satisfaction of Ahuramazda. The difference between Darius's image in these two works includes the following: The difference in standing figure, differences in right-hand position, differences in appearance and crown of king and god. The above-mentioned differences were made for the following reasons: Different functions of the two reliefs (victory and burial memorial), localization of the image of the king and further simulation of the image of the king and God. The visual and semantic difference created in the image of Darius is due to the confrontation of the victorious emperor in Behistun relief with the powerful emperor in Naqsh-e-Rostam; this contrast has been due to the different functions of the two reliefs.