نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
دانشجوی دکتری باستان شناسی ( دوران اسلامی) دانشگاه هنر اصفهان
عنوان مقاله [English]
The similarities between the motifs used in a profession and industry in a family, influence some of those motifs in another industry and profession from that family. Evidence of this claim, the stucco artist and carpenter Kermani, can be seen in the eighth century AH. The existence of the plasterer artist family of Kermani, which for several generations have made distinguished stucco work by the order of the elders and rulers, influenced the other works and industries of that family, such as carpentry. The old custom that had long been prevalent among Iranians, and was inherited from father to son or master to apprentice, made it possible for most families to master a variety of professions and industries. This tradition continued throughout the Islamic era; the most famous instance is the rise of the tile maker, Abu Tahir Kashani, in the seventh century AH. Their works, such as the mosque's Mihrab, the star tiles, cross, the various vessels that adorn the museums and collections, continued until the mid-eighth century AH. Other remaining examples of the works by the Kermani family that emerged in the 8th century AH with the financial and political support of the powerful ruling governments include the stucco Mihrab of Imamzadeh Rabieh Khatoon of Oshtorjan (available at the National Museum of Iran, Museum number 3271); by (amal) "Masoud Kermani", stucco Mihrab of Masjid-I Kucha-yi Mir in Natanz; (registration number 209 and dated 31/4/1313) amal "Haidar Kermani", stucco Mihrabs of Masjid-I Kermani Turbat-I Jam, amal "Khaju bin Zaki bin Mohammad bin Masoud Kermani", wooden pulpit of Masjid-I Jami of Nain (registration number 144 and the date 15/10/1310) amal " Mahmoud Shah bin Mohammed Alnqash Alkrmany", and wooden pulpit of Masjid-I Jami Yarand Natanz; amal" Mohammad bin Ostad Haidar Kermani". The objective of this paper is the visual recognition of the Mihrab of Imamzadeh Rabieh Khatoon of Oshtorjan and the wooden pulpit of Masjid-I Jami of Nain, and the main purpose of this research is a comparative study of motifs, structural components and inscriptions of the Mihrab of Imamzadeh Rabieh a Khatoon of Oshtorjan and the wooden pulpit of Masjid-I Jami of Nain. In this regard, the questions that will be answered in this article are: 1.What visual characteristics can be mentioned for the Imamzadeh Rabieh Khatoon of Oshtorjan and the pulpit of Masjid-I Jami of Nain in the eighth century AH? 2.What are the similarities between the motifs, structural components, and inscriptions of the Mihrab of Imamzadeh Rabieh Khatoon of Oshtorjan and the wooden pulpit of Masjid-I Jami of Nain? Method of data collection has been based on field studies with reference to published material. Based on the quiddity and method, the present study is a descriptive-analytical research with a comparative approach. Data were collected and analyzed using library research and field research methods, and documenting works. The statistical society of this research has been introduced by visiting about seven buildings in different regions of Iran, such as Nain, Natanz, Turbat-I Jam, ... and museum items (Mihrab of Imamzadeh Rabieh Khatoon of Oshtorjan available in the Islamic section of the National Museum of Iran), as well as photographing them which was followed by software analysis of motifs and inscriptions. Two cases of the Stucco Mihrab of Imamzadeh Rabieh Khatoon of Oshtorjan and the wooden pulpit of Masjid-I Jami of Nain were examined. The method of sampling was based on the existence of the greatest similarity between the two works, and finally, a comparative study of these two works and other works of the statistical society, enabled us to achieve a number of common features between them. The results indicated that a number of motifs, structural components and inscriptions on the stucco Mihrab of Imamzadeh Rabieh Khatoon of Oshtorjan are similar and comparable to that of the wooden pulpit of Masjid-I Jami of Nain, namely, similarity in the frames surrounding the motifs, form of placement of arabesque, application of rounded form, sharp form of the arch of the blind arcade and its tangent to the peripheral lines of the spandrel, assignation of the right walls to the inscription of the name of the artist of the Mihrab/ pulpit and the left one to the inscription of the date, as well as compaction and detailing of the field inscriptions. Therefore, considering that the eighth century AH was the era of stucco, and the stucco works of this period are significant, and also the chronological antecedent of the Mihrab of Imamzadeh Rabieh Khatoon of Oshtorjan (708 AH) to the wooden pulpit of Masjid-I Jami of Nain (711 AH), stucco artist Kermani has influenced the carpenter Kermani, while on the other hand, some artists have been master of arts.