عنوان مقاله [English]
Throughout history and among various ethnic groups, there have been different beliefs about traveling to other worlds (the afterlife) that always draw the minds and beliefs of believers to religion. One of these journeys is the ascent to the kingdom of the heavens, which includes a wide range of mythological stories and has special stages and preparations. "Ascension" literally means "ladder", and in religious terminology of the Muslims, it is called "passing through earthly life and traveling to the heavens" by the Prophet of Islam (PBUH); like the Prophet's night journey to the seven heavens, the themes of which have always inspired artists and writers over time. The surviving images of the Illkhanate’s MirajNameh (ascension letter) (762-772 AH), and the Timurid MirajNameh (840 AH) have recounted and displayed the subject. Also, the images are illustrated separately with the subject of ascension among other manuscripts such as Khamsa of Nizami in the early tenth century. The images of the Illkhanate’s MirajNameh, which were probably ordered by the last ruler of the Illkhanate (Abu Sa'id), have been separated from their original text and the sequence of calligraphy and painting albums collected in eight leaves from Bahram Mirza Album (Muraqqa‘), which is kept in the Topkapi Library of Istanbul, has been added respectively. The Timurid MirajNameh, which was translated by the poet Mir Haydarand written by Malik Bakhshi of Herat in the Uyghur script, contains 61 images of the stages of the ascension of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) into the seven heavens and observation of the wonders of the unseen world, and the kingdoms of heaven and hell. Since in the first centuries of Islam, the ascension of the Prophet provided a chance for the storytellers to perform, to the extent that they used wonderful legends to enliven it, it can be argued that the narration of the ascension of the Prophet (PBUH) is through pretexts (source and reference texts) and resulting texts (texts created based on source texts) that are associated with ancient archetypal and mythological concepts and elements, in such a way that through accurate and objective recording of some events and places, it tries to face the audience with the universal facts contained in the myths to express the events and happenings that have taken place outside the custom and habit of the real world. Therefore, in this article, in order to recognize and examine the archetypal symbol and its meanings in the images of the above-mentioned MirajNamehs, following Northrop Frye's views on the theory of archetypal meaning and the way of literary reading of sacred texts, we consider the narrations of the ascension as of literary-combined texts and, in terms of research questions, argue how the Frye approach can be effective in analyzing and examining ascension images, and what the archetypal meanings in the images are, and how they are represented, which includes the study of the images in three aspects: heaven, hell, and deduction. From Frye’s point of view, there are three organizations of myths and archetypal symbols in literature. First, there is an undisplaced myth, the second organization is romance (based on analogy) and finally, we can name realism. Undisplaced myths are always related to the world of gods and demons, and the images in them are desirable (heaven) or undesirable (hell) which are often identified with the existential heavens and hells of the religions. In romance, we are confronted with a world in which mythical patterns of God and the demons assume the human identity and are more closely associated with human experience, in which the principle of displacement is used. From Frye's point of view, the archetypal symbol is a natural object with human meaning and is the product of human civilization. Therefore, archetypes have familiar cryptic associations according to the culture of each society and are considered as typical symbols in literary works and refer to specific cryptic associations. The results of studies based on the descriptive-analytical method and adaptation of Frye’s theory of myths, using library sources and qualitative analysis, show that the metaphors organizing books and sacred texts, such as Grammar, have been used for the images in the narrations of ascension. The archetypal symbol in the ascension narration and its images as messenger images can be classified and examined in two axes. The first axis is the archetypal images of hell, heaven, and deduction, and the second axis is the great chain of the universe, which can be categorized into seven layers of existence, including a deity, human, animal, plant, solid, water, and fire. Reading these hidden patterns in the narration and the story of ascension brings the narration of the story from the historical category to the meta-historical and archetypal level. Most of the images in MirajNameh are very close to the undisplaced metaphorical and mythical aspects of the sacred texts in terms of the analogy of innocence.