نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
استادیار دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز، دانشکده هنرهای تجسمی
عنوان مقاله [English]
While doing research in Islamic art, especially decorative art, we face alphabetic samples that despite the similarity to the overall structure of alphabetic text cannot be read. Although these shapes have been drawn in the frame of alphabet of the text, they do not convey a meaning to be read. These figures, which are similar to the inscriptions, have been represented in the present study as quasi -writing. Faced with these examples, what has convinced the audience to accept – or doubt – them as writing, is déjà vu and similarity between the examples and the structure of letters in the Islamic alphabet. This research has been conducted with the aim of introducing this category of quasi-literature in the Islamic Arts. As a result, quasi-documents are divided into two groups, and each group includes two smaller divisions. The first group includes the inscriptions which are fully covered with Kufic-like quasi-texts. The second group includes inscriptions that resemble handwritings. Of these two groups, the second one is more likely to accompany other decorative designs. In many decorative inscriptions; the formal and structural elements are entangled together to the extent that their distinction and reading is simply not possible. In the third group, it is possible to identify letters of the Islamic alphabet, though they are not legible. In the fourth group, the inscription is partly readable, inscribed along with the quasi-writings that cannot be read. The purpose of this paper is to introduce and classify this type of quasi-writings in the Islamic art. In this regard, the main two questions are as follows: 1- What are the reasons for depicting quasi-writings among the inscriptions? 2- How and within which structure have the quasi-writings been inscribed? To achieve this purpose, methods of visual analysis have been used in terms of the inscription samples of the Islamic period. The statistical population and samples have been chosen from the wide array of inscriptions of Islamic art.
The use of writing in the Islamic arts, except to save and record the entries and text-based documents, which are associated to knowledge and information, could have been developed due to a different reason that has been more associated with decorative aspects (that could also be called the motif-centered texts). This type of texts that may fall in the framework of inscriptions is seen in much of the Islamic crafts and was mostly provided as ornamentation. This extensive field may include tombstones to clothing and carpets. Numerous examples of these products in the early Islamic periods testify to the application of texts as ornamentations. Messages on inscriptions should be considered as having an important function, but decorative function of inscriptions should be regarded as a more important one. It is not in vain to say that inscription or writing may well be expected as another category of decorations along with geometric and arabesque decorations in Islamic art.
As well as the decorative inscriptions, there are writings – or in a sense quasi-writings – that are not legible. This ineligibility is not because of scrambled handwriting, overflow and compactness of writing elements, etc, in fact these quasi-writing signs have not been drawn to be read, since they have not been formed based on rules of Islamic scripts, but due to their general resemblance to the form of the Islamic alphabet, or a style of writing, they look like writing. This similarity is underlined by compliance with the structure of Islamic alphabet, vicinity to other decorative systems, compliance with a specific base line and of course the topic of déjà vu.
Fantasy or orientation on familiar topics like literature, perhaps physical structure and visual perception error may be considered among the main reasons for it. In fact, ambiguity with textual similarities leads to an illusion in the eye. This ambiguity has been a means that for certain purposes – which will be referred to – has helped the artists. Because ambiguity is a tool and phenomenon of comprehension institutionally and essentially, and scientists fight error, while artists welcome ambiguity ... in this perception, a type of unrealistic comprehension replaces the real comprehension. The succeeding view of comprehension is perception of objects which occur to our minds through inference which signs have been entrusted to our memories. Comprehension is something that is focused on due to deviation and digression from the truth.
It is necessary to systematically deviate from the norm. In fact, similarity of decorative writings with what which is not in fact writing (and only deemed as writing because of its similarity to Islamic alphabet) has lead to creation of types of decoration, especially in Islamic handicrafts.