نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز
2 استادیار دانشکده هنرهای تجسمی، دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز. تبریز. ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Glassmaking, as one of the valuable arts of Iran and Egypt, dates back to several thousand years ago. It entered into a new stage during the Islamic period with a rich historical and artistic background, so that the 3rd-7th centuries AH are considered as one of the most important eras of glassmaking in the Islamic period of Iran and Egypt. Iranian glassmaking in the Islamic period evolved while preserving and continuing the techniques of glass making and decorating of the previous era. Meanwhile, Egypt has been one of the main centers of glassmaking, and the ancient Egyptians were among the most prominent and skilled glassmakers in the world, but the peak of this art and craft took place in Egypt during the Islamic centuries. Despite the rich history of Iranian and Egyptian glass art, studies in this field have received less attention. Therefore, the present study is a comparative study of the sample glass chandeliers from the Islamic period of Iran and Egypt.
Egypt is one of the countries in constant interaction with Iran; both of which have influenced each other in various fields. These interactions and influences in different historical periods have increased or decreased according to the governing conditions. The vital role of the Silk Road and the road’s ending at the shores of the Mediterranean Sea as well as Egypt, the transfer of artworks, and the migration of artists, caused an extensive relation in various economic, cultural and artistic fields between two countries from the beginning of Islam until the 6th-7th centuries AH.
Also, the role of Bandar-e Siraf and the trade of glassware through the Red Sea between Iran and Egypt cannot be overlooked. Iran and Egypt, as the pioneers in the art of glassmaking, have made a great contribution to its advancement in the Islamic period.
The purpose of this research is recognizing part of the glassworks of these countries and achieving their similarities and contrasts by focusing on the elements that have built up the form and overall structure of the components, patterns and ornaments under the title of morphology which is a science in the field of literary studies; currently used in other fields including art studies. The Russian researcher and anthropologist, Vladimir Propp first coined the term morphology. Morphology literally means studying and recognizing shapes and faces. That is the study of the components of an object and their relationship to each other and to the whole structure of that object. Morphology does not only mean determining the form and shape of works, but it also generalizes to recognizing and classifying works, determining the fixed and variable elements of each work, and in a broader dimension, extracting the morphological pattern, and the scientific comparative study of works by reviewing components of each effect.
The present study seeks to answer these questions: 1) What are the visual features of Iranian and Egyptian glass chandeliers in terms of morphology, 2) What are the differences and similarities in the shape of the glass chandeliers of Iran and Egypt in the 3rd-7th centuries AH?
This research is developmental in terms of purpose, retrospective in terms of time, and descriptive-analytical in terms of nature and method. Data and information were collected through authentic library sources. The population includes 12 samples of Iranian glass chandeliers and 9 samples of Egyptian glass chandeliers during the 3rd-7th centuries AH.
The results indicate that despite the similarities in the shape of glass chandeliers, differences in their components, including fixed elements of the body, neck, base and pendant, and variable elements of ornaments and patterns, differentiated Iranian and Egyptian glass chandeliers from each other. Body, neck, pendant ring and base are considered as the fixed components, and various decorations and designs on glass chandeliers are among the changing elements of these works.
The body shape of Iranian and Egyptian glass chandeliers is parabolic and vase-like, but differences exist in these forms.
The neck of Egyptian chandeliers is taller and wider than the neck shape of Iranian glass chandeliers, with a wide mouth made by a glass artist, which, like the body, has been a suitable background for presenting decorations and designs. A flat base was observed in the glass chandeliers of both countries, while a long base was observed in the glass chandeliers of Egypt.
Despite the similarity of the shape of the glass rings -to pass the chains and hang the chandelier from the ceiling- there are differences in the glass chandeliers of Iran and Egypt, including the ring-like shape of this component in Iranian chandeliers and the handle-like form in Egyptian chandeliers. Also, some methods of decorating glassworks by glass artists have been used in only one of these countries. Drawn upon the study, the Egyptian glass artists, unlike the Iranian ones, were attracted to the use of pure abstract and iconic-abstract decorations.