نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد معماری دانشگاه صنعتی جندی شاپور دزفول، روبروی پایگاه چهارم شکاری شهید وحدتی، دانشگاه صنعتی جندی شاپور دزفول
2 استادیار و عضو هیئت علمی گروه معماری دانشگاه صنعتی جندی شاپور دزفول
عنوان مقاله [English]
Illustration and architecture are two important expressing media of the Islamic Revolution of Iran and the Holy Defense. The Iran-Iraq war, known as the “Imposed War” and the “Holy Defense”, began in September 1980 when Iraq invaded Iran simultaneously by air and land and lasted until August 1988. The Islamic Republic stressed its moral superiority by couching its military engagements (both defensive and offensive) as a sacred, collective effort to protect the Iranian homeland and ensure its survival. In the meantime, the illustration was initially used as a medium of revolution; however, the architecture was made after the end of the war as museum and memorial or monument. It is believed that these two arts have also benefited from common elements in terms of the content of expression tools. The purpose of this research is to answer the following questions: how can one obtain the common expression ways and literature in arts which are influenced by the Islamic Revolution and Sacred Defense culture? What are the common elements and interconnected linguistic grammar between the arts related to the concept of the Sacred Defense? Here, the meaning of Islamic culture suggests the Holy Defense culture. The research is a comparative study and the research method is analytical-interpretive. For content analysis, the method of morphology and Erwin Panofsky’s iconography method have been used. Erwin Panofsky was a specialist in Renaissance art, but in keeping with the humanist tradition of the period, the term ‘Renaissance’ must be applied to his work in its broadest sense. In Studies in Iconology he set up a system of three distinct levels. The first level, termed pre-iconographical, consists of primary or natural subject matter. Although identification on this level can generally be achieved through practical experience, accurate assessment of some kinds of representations, realistic versus unrealistic for instance, depends on an awareness of the conditions and principles related to a specific historical style. The second level, iconography in its usual sense, consists of secondary or conventional subject matter, and is achieved by connecting artistic motifs with themes or concepts. The third level is identified as Iconography in a deeper sense, or iconology. It consists of intrinsic meaning or content and is intent upon building an understanding of the relationship between one work and the larger context in which it was created. Hence, after examining 26 examples in visual arts and 15 examples of Holy Defense memorials and museums, it is attempted to analyze the content and expression of these two arts. To examine the forms of Sacred Defense illustration, the main and secondary themes and ways of expressing each of the works are analyzed, following which they were compared to the architectural forms. In architectural research, concepts include elements used in the form of shells and walls, sign elements, the type and quality of functional spaces, the velocity paths and their quality, historical references and types of decorations, the way of interaction between artifacts and natural environment. The performed studies show that the way of expression in the Sacred Defense illustrations is devoted to the symbolic style.70 percent of the works are done symbolically and 30 percent in a realistic style. After comparing the elements of illustration and architecture, the results show that despite the lack of overlap between the symbols in the two arts of architecture and illustration, these arts are aligned with symbolism. Illustrations and architectures have many common interests in the Sacred Defense such as human, animal, vegetative, linear, and geometric, architectural and artistic elements, which emphasize the remembrance of symbols in the collective memory of people. These elements are (human element (statue and image of warriors and the Mother), Animal element (White Bird) Vegetative decorations (tulip, palm tree and cypress), Linear and geometric elements (candlestick, eight and eight octagonal stars, Slavic motifs and inscriptions), Architectural elements (dome and reconstruction of some spaces such as mosques, trenches, schools and ruined walls) Ammunitions (tank, boot, hat, plaque, stern and flag). The huge number of people killed or injured in the fight against Saddam Hussein's troops is the foundation on which Iranian identity and the country′s historical self-image rests. Honoring martyrs has been an integral part of the Shia Islam. Iran’s war memorials in the landscape partially reflect the nation’s political history. Commemoration through Iran-Iraq war memorials mirrors not only what Iranian society wants to remember, but also what it wishes to forget. In Iran today, societal expectations structure the appropriateness of Sacred Defense memorials. People feel more than an obligation to have Sacred War memorials; war memorials may even be a necessity. The brutal fact that husbands, sons, friends and neighbors fought, suffered and often were killed, brings forth genuine feelings of remorse and a need to somehow remember them.