عنوان مقاله [English]
Composition is the art of arranging the elements in such a way that they form a purposive structure. Composition in Persian Painting is closely connected to the relationship of the arts with mathematics and geometry. Persian miniature specifically acquires its merits in composition from the field of geometry; to such an extent that a lot of the visual qualities present in the works of Persian painting such as unity, harmony, compatibility between the elements, equilibrium and balance come from their geometrical substructure. The most important geometrical shapes in the composition of Iranian paintings are variations of the spiral, circle, square and rectangle, and the most notable mathematical proportions that are used include the golden and radical ratios. However, the systematic networks that implement the harmonious exterior partitions pertain to the repetition of poetic inscriptions in length and width and the bulging networks arising from the directory lines of the depiction’s framework. Consequently, the corresponding networks are comprised of diagonals and their intersections, linings, golden marks on the frame and bisections. The coming together of geometrical shapes and proportions with their systematic networks amounts to a concealed geometry that the final unified composition of the works of Persian painting is founded upon. Therefore, their visual merits come from this systematic composition which is the result of concealed geometry and the carefully considered structure of the elements. Hence, evaluating the apparent and concealed composition of the depictions bring about further understanding of the specific features and visual qualities of the works of Persian miniature, it also sheds light on their similarities and differences. In order to study and compare compositions among schools of Persian Painting, this study has chosen three depictions from the Khamsa of Nizami (1442 AD/846 AH) belonging to the schools of Herat, Tabriz of the Safavid era and Qazvin. The aim of this article is to arrive at the specific compositional features of depictions and study their transformations. Based on the assumption that the compositions of Kamāl ud-Dīn Behzād use more carefully considered geometrical and symmetrical systems, this research provides answers to these questions: 1. What are the transformational processes in the composition of the selected works of Khamsa of Nizami (1442 AD/846 AH)? 2. What are the differences and similarities among the compositional systems in the three chosen depictions? The current research is qualitative and fundamental in terms of orientation and goal. The manner of collecting data is library-based, and the interpretational method is descriptive-analytical and comparative. The choosing of the selected depictions was non-random and the criteria for selecting cases include similarities in subject matter and differences among schools. The cases are: depictions of The Battle of Iskandar and Dara by Behzād, The Death of Dara and The Battle of Iskandar with the Russians, that provide the theme of battle from three different schools. After the introductory evaluation of the depictions, their visual structure is studied and analyzed in order to shed light on the concealed geometry in the substructure of the composition, and then a comparative interpretation is presented. Therefore, the elements that constitute the geometrical structure, the size of the frame and the composition of visual elements in the depictions are studied which in detail include: the criterion epigraph, the index square, golden and dynamic rectangles, spiral curves and directory lines. Then, based on drawings and comparisons performed in the visual analysis of the works, by identifying various distinguishing relations, shapes, and geometric proportions in the compositional system, the selected works have been compared. Based on the findings of the study, it can be concluded that application of latent geometry played a significant role in the formation of the compositional systems of the three selected miniatures. However, the miniature belonging to the Herat School, created by Kamāl ud-Dīn Behzād, has a more systematic and cohesive composition by using geometric structures and creating a system of proportions, compared to the other two miniatures. In fact, despite the sheer abundance of structures and relations utilized in its underlying composition, the work is dominated by coordination and integration. Moreover, the evolution of the compositions in the selected miniatures was accompanied by gradual changes based on the transformations of miniature schools, while also being associated with and influenced by the traditions and innovations of Behzād.