عنوان مقاله [English]
The construction of tombs and monuments has been common in many historical periods. The monuments were either built on Allahverdikhan’s own orders or built after his death, at the behest of his friends and relatives. Dome of Allahverdikhan is one of the beautiful monuments built in Imam Reza's holy shrine. In his lifetime, he ordered the construction of the dome. These works are at the height of beauty and innovation.
Artists and architects have created a new work in architecture by building it. They showcase their art and creativity both in appearance and in secret. Appearance: Beautiful motifs and in secret: Meaning of motifs. Safavid artists have used symbols in their works. The meaning of the symbols and signs has been lost over time. It is possible to study the meanings and concepts of the designs used in Imam Reza's shrine according to their specific historical concepts and symbols. Studying and analyzing these themes can reveal the purpose of the artists in designing these motifs. It can also illustrate their meaning in the Safavid period.
The Allahverdikhan dome is an octagonal building, northeast of the shrine of Imam Reza. This building is built on two floors. On the first floor there are eight porches that are decorated. These decorations include inscriptions, animal and plant motifs, and especially birds
In this research, the equilibrium and relationship between the inscriptions of Dome of Allahverdikhan and bird motifs are investigated. The purpose of this article is to re-read the relationship between the inscriptions and the birds that have influenced the decoration of the first floor. These decorations are all tiled. So the questions are as follows: what are the subject of inscriptions and the symbolic meaning of depicted birds? And what is the relationship between the subject of inscriptions and the role of birds?
The research method is descriptive and analytical, and information is based on library documents and case study. The findings show that the inscription and the bird's role were purposely chosen according to the foundations of Shiite thought and the ideology of the Safavid government. The establishment of the Safavid government in all parts of Iran emphasized Shiite art. Colorful birds in the dome of Allaverdikhan present a picture of paradise. Pheasant, parrot, peacock, Simorgh and duck provide spiritual space among the plant elements. The contents of the inscriptions are dedicated to the date of the birth of the infallible Imams, the testimony and virtue of the pilgrimage of the verse of Tathirah in Quran, greetings to the Ahlul-Bayt and historical explanations, sponsors and artists of the dome building. Birds depict symbolic numbers, mystical symbols and colors with concepts such as paradise, the perfect human being.
In this study, the symbolic meanings of birds such as Simorgh, pheasant, duck, peacock and parrot are listed. The entrance porch inscription states that this place is part of heaven. It should be noted, however, that the image of birds flying or sitting on the branches, brings paradise to mind. Since this place was the main entrance to the holy shrine up to the Qajar period, in one of the inscriptions the Imam Reza pilgrimage was regarded as equal to the Hajj. The number of forty white pheasants refers to the Ihram dress of the Muslims and the number of forty is a complete number. The inscriptions are written in Thuluth and Nastaliq. The content of the inscriptions refers to Imam Reza's birth, martyrdom and virtue of pilgrimage to his shrine, the verse of Tathirah, greetings to the Ahlul-Bayt and a description of the building. Symbols, numbers and colors are in harmony with the inscriptions such as paradise, perfect human reason, the name of the infallible Imams and Mahdi. The weightlessness of the depicted birds in the porches, their sitting on branches and their singing along with the subject of the inscriptions, provide the audience with a harmonious accord and suggest the aim of the artists. The final goal has been to recreate a paradise-like atmosphere for the audience and the pilgrims at the threshold of this holy shrine in an effort to partly convey the spirituality and unworldliness of this place.