عنوان مقاله [English]
The Qavarebori has flourished in the Qajar era to such an extent that one of the hallmarks of Qajar architecture is the presence of doors, windows and beautiful sashes made with this authentic Iranian art. The eye-catching visual features and remarkable technical characteristics such as high strength and cost-effective use of wood and glass are the reasons for the prevalence of wooden elements decorated with qavarebori technology in this period. According to the type of use, taste of founder or taskmaster, as well as the type of artistic attitude of the time and the influence of the social characteristics, the qavarebori ornaments of each building have undergone many changes, not merely in terms of technique, but in design and motif as well. In every historical period, royal palaces and monuments are the most important and the greatest places to show the peak of art and taste of the artists of each era, and the most appropriate case studies to fully explore the arts, especially architectural ornaments, can be found in these mansions. The royal citadel of Tehran, as the ruling headquarters of the Qajar dynasty (1793-1924 AD), is a collection of six monuments with various uses, each adorned with ornamental and varied architecture. Among these decorations, which are widely seen in all buildings of the Golestan Palace complex, are qavarebori decorations that adorn doors, windows, etc. The main question of this research is as follows: What are the similarities and differences in the structure of the motifs of the Golestan Palace Complex? And what have been the developments of the decorations of this royal complex over time? This research is a historical case study that, through library and field (photography) research methods, analyzes the studied samples qualitatively. The results of studies indicate that the function of buildings, taste, influence of social indices, etc., caused changes in design, motifs and other artistic features of works. The qavarebori of this complex mainly depict duplicate (reflective) motifs with rectangular copies and circular cracks adorned with arabesque patterns that were most commonly used in sashes and crescent forms above the doors. It also seems that the variety and complexity of the qavarebori motifs and their executive techniques in early Qajar buildings are greater than the subsequent ones; however Shams al-Amara palace may be regarded as an exception. Because in its construction and decoration, it was tried to use the finest and the most beautiful arts of the time to create a beautiful and artistic work of art. For example, despite the construction of the building during the late Nasserian period, some of the motifs of the qavarebori of this mansion, namely the examples on the large sashes of the first floor and the upper ones, still display complexity, while the simplicity of the other works of this period can only be seen in the few windows of the mansion such as the windows below the first floor of Shams al-Amara. On the other hand, in most of the works, made during these years, qavarebori has been used solely and without having been incorporated with other arts. But in some qavarebori works of this mansion, such as the main sash on the first floor Ivan of Kiosk, art techniques such as square signet, trelliswork, etc. have been combined with qavarebori, creating a beautiful and unique work.