عنوان مقاله [English]
The Miraj (Night journey) of the Prophet of Islam (PBUH) is one of the subjects depicted by various painters in various historical-cultural periods, and it can be said that the most popular religious themes in the field of Islamic painting are always appropriate contexts for creativity and innovation of painters. The present study was conducted using descriptive-analytical method and qualitative approach, and studied the story of the Miraj of the Prophet from Khamseh Shah Tahmasebi, the artwork of Sultan Mohammad, based on the principles of visual perception of Gestalt.
Research data is also collected using library methods. What is important in Gestalt's visual principles is to understand the perception of communication that results in a meaningful combination. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to explore the effect of Gestalt visual perceptual rules on painting in order to identify its capabilities in creating useful communication.
Miraj, as one of the topics that has a special place in Islamic culture, has been repeatedly portrayed by various painters, among which the work of Sultan Mohammad has been very popular. On the other hand, Gestalt theory of visual perception is a means to understand the perception of communication that results in a meaningful combination. Therefore, the main purpose of choosing this theory is to discover the extent and quality of influence that the principles of the Gestalt theory of visual perception have on the mentioned image to identify its potentials to result in a functional and successful communication.
In fact, we can say that the present research seeks to read the pictures based on the same principles and tries to reconcile the scientific and credible theory with the brilliant example of Khamseh Shah Tahmasebi, and to explore the effect of these principles on painting. After description and visual analysis of the image and the classification of the elements in the image as the mind of the viewer demands, the existence, absence, and magnitude of the pragnanz of the seven principles of Gestalt's visual perception in painting are examined. Each item is explored individually in a graphic manner and visualized. In general, this research attempts to answer the following questions: Which of the principles of Gestalt's visual perception can be verified in Miraj of Sultan Mohammad? What is the pragnanz of each of these principles?
Gestalt theory was first developed in the early twentieth century in the field of psychology and in reaction to the theory of structuralism. Some researchers believed that in perception and behavior; organized whole; these components are prior to others. Gestalt’s principles show their key role when visual information grows; because the human mind is interested in categorizing. The classification of visual elements is an activity that the human mind performs subconsciously from childhood. This feature is also widely used in the training process.
Art theorists expanded and expanded the principles of Gestalt, and most notably in the analysis of works of art: The principle of similarity, the principle of proximity, the principle of continuity, the principle of integration or completion, the relations of form and background, the principle of the common destiny and the principle of superficiality. All these principles are under the influence of the principle of pragnanz, which forms the core of the Gestalt conceptual theory. Pragnanz or perfectionism is our perception of a good and strong Gestalt or representation, so that under conditions of domination, it is effectively distinguished from existing and weaker Gestalt or existing representations.
According to what has been studied, it can be said that the principles of the Gestalt theory of visual perception play a very significant role in improving the process of reading the work of art. Reading this image, based on one of the most scientific and most systematic principles of visual perception and methodology of art, shows that the eyes and mind of the audience to understand the complexity and components and elements of a dense and tremendous effect use the seven principles of Gestalt, the organization and classification of the best, which will lead to an easier and more accurately understood communication.
The result of analyzing the principles of Gestalt on the overall image of the Miraj showed that the effectiveness of each of the laws was not the same and left different Pragnanz, hence the emphasis on a single criterion alone is not a valid criterion. Therefore, in the present painting, the principle of similarity, Gestalt of the dimensions and similarity of the shape, the principle of proximity of the edge and the proximity of contact, the principle of continuity and the principle of completeness and integrity of the strong pragnanz are and can be appraised. Also, the principle of adjacency can be overlapping with the adjacency of integration, except in weak pragnanz.