عنوان مقاله [English]
Today, it has been accepted that the learning of calligraphy has been an integral part of the cultural taste and interest of the Safavid community. Some calligraphers of this period, in addition to their letter writing and manuscripts, have also been involved in the writing inscriptions. On the other hand, the Safavid calligraphy community accepted the use of Nastaliq to write verses and poems. What is clearly visible in this is the emergence and presence of inscription's calligraphers along with other Safavid artists. Since many of the calligraphers identified in this study have not been prolific in writing, it can be concluded that they are often engaged in writing inscriptions. This fact reflects the importance of such works in the present research period. In other words, the artistic and cultural context of the Safavid era was such that a new branch of artistic activity emerged independently in the style of Nastalıq inscription in the decoration related to the architecture of this period.
The prevalence of Nastaliq inscriptions in Safavid architecture is one of the significant innovations in this era. The inscriptions, in addition to the aesthetic aspects, contain valuable information such as the names of people who are influential in the building of monuments and inscriptions. From this perspective, inscriptions can be considered valid documents in identifying a part of Iranian art history. One of the most researched aspects in this field is the introduction of calligraphers of these inscriptions, which have been studied less in history of calligraphy or have not been considered at all. The general question of the research is as follows: which Safavid calligraphers have been active in the field of Nastaliq inscription and how many works left there? According to that, a fundamental research based on library and field studies was carried out in more than 150 Safavid buildings containing at least 227 Nastaliq inscriptions.
The results show that there are 81 signed inscriptions which at least 44 calligraphers have been sign them. According to this research, Safavid Nastaliq inscription started with Sultan Ali Mashhadi in early 10th century A.H. and finished with calligraphers such as Mohammad Saleh Isfahani and Ali Naqi Emami in first quarter of 12th century A.H. They can devided in 3 groups. The first one, included the famous calligraphers such as Mir Emad, Ali Reza Abbasi and Mohammad Saleh Isfahani that there are detailed biography of them in available sources. Another group of these calligraphers are the artists that there are little information about their life and works, such as: Abolfotouh Golestane, Sahifi Johari, Abutorab Isfahani, Ali Khan Beik, Abolmaali Naqib, Shafi bin Abdoljabbar, Noura, Dargahqoli Sharif and Velayatollah Golpayegani. The third group of calligraphers of the inscriptions are the artists who, unfortunately, have not yet found any other work in the manuscripts or collections other than the end of these inscriptions, such as Mohammad Khan, Beman Ali, Abdolvahhab, Nezamoddin Hafez, Adib Majlesi, Abdullah, Mohammad Momen, Mohammad Moqim Mousavi, Khalilollah and Abu Saeed Emami. The most numerous works are belonging to Mohammad Saleh Isfahani, Mohammad Reza Emami, Ali Naqi Emami, Sultan Ali Mashhadi, Mir Masoum Bakri, Ali Reza Abbasi and Hassan Shamlou.
In addition to the above, it can be noticed that there is no trace of the inscriptions of Molana Adham, Mir Ali Herawi, Malek Deylami, Mohammad Hussein Tabrizi and Mohammad Shafi Herawi, except for the very brief description and explanation in the sources mentioned. Therefore, it can be studied in future investigations. Also, the form analysis and different styles of these works are also research capabilities that can be done by other interested individuals.