عنوان مقاله [English]
Nasta'līq and Tash'ir are two companion elements in Iranian book illustration. The two art forms have been shaped almost at the same historic era. Therefore, they have been frequently used together. Accordingly, addressing this issue in the present study is of paramount importance. The present study is aimed at identifying the exact form of Nasta'līq and Tash'ir in Iranian book illustration from Timurid period to Qajar period. In the matter of this issue, the present research study is sought to answer the following research questions: 1. What factors have led to the formation of Nasta'līq and Tash'ir in Iranian book illustration from Timurid period to Qajar period? 2. According to the formalist approach what similarities and differences are found in Nasta'līq and Tash'ir? The answers to these questions have been reached through a descriptive-analytical method with a view to the theory of formalism. Data is collected using library sources. In summary, the results of this study show that the inclusion of these two arts after interregnum led to the display of the Timurid external decorations to show their assets. Cumulating wealth in his territory, Timur contributed to the growth of the art of book decoration during his successors' period, so that the Timurid kings paid more attention to the appearance than to the content of the manuscripts, and constantly produced a variety of copies of a book. This is also evident in the architecture of that period. Therefore, the decorative margins and the delicate texts of Nasta'līq, which were used for the beauty of the manuscripts, were directly associated to the display of the immense wealth of the Timurid. Another point that led to the emergence of these two arts in the art of book decoration was the combination of the art of the past, that is, as Nasta'līq was formed by the combination of Naskh and Taʿlīq, Tash'ir came from the combination of Persian miniature and illuminated manuscript. Therefore, dichotomy is a common point between them; in addition, other commonalities such as the strength and weakness of the lines, the dispersion of patterns and letters, the selection of color of Tash'ir and the Nasta'līq, having certain rules in measuring the size of patterns and letters, all served the coordination and unity of the manuscripts. The increasing application of Nasta'līq and Tash'ir together during the Safavid period reached its peak, and the common external features among them in Muraqqa reached a stable equilibrium. In fact, if Muraqqas were not prevalent, Tash'ir would not have flourished to such an extent. Moreover, the decorative potential of Tash'ir also appeared in Nasta'līq vocabulary, indicating their impact on each other and causing a further similarity between them. From the Qajar period, a new form of art was created separately for the purpose of Nasta'līq calligraphy, which was called Siyah mashq. Calligraphy that always had narrative was then free of narrative, and letters and words had only decorative aspect. The placement of different layers of gray produced from compound concentrations of ink, made a variety of decorative compounds. In addition to the above mentioned commonalities, one of the main differences between them is Nasta'līq's regularity compared to the free exercise of Tash'ir. The exercise of Tash'ir is done by paintbrush, causing irregular movement of Tash'ir designs throughout the whole margins of the manuscripts, while Nasta'līq letters are exercised using reed pen to be written on a given line. Failure to observe this rule causes the apparent coherence of the text to be eliminated. Another distinction is the priority of narrative aspect in Nasta'līq, compared to the decorative aspect of Tash'ir. In the qualitative system of book decoration, there is a hierarchy in which the text has a priority and the decorations are in the next levels. Nasta'līq's position in the main page and Tash'ir's at the margins, indicate degrees of the book decoration. On the other hand, there is another difference in their position. Tash'ir ornaments should not be entered into the text frame on the page, because they make it difficult to understand the text and create a disorder on the page, but the text frames can break the rectangular shape of the margin and enter it. These points have been studied over the course of different studies.