تجلی باورهای دینی بر کتیبه‌نگاری مذهبی شمشیرهای دوره‌های صفوی و قاجار

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه باستان شناسی دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهر شهر کرد، استان چهار محال بختیاری.

2 دان شآموخت ه باستا نشناسی دورة اسلامی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، استان چهارمحال و بختیاری

10.22070/negareh.2020.4799.2321

چکیده

مفاهیم و باورهای مذهبی در دوره‌های صفوی و قاجار بر اشیاء مختلف منعکس شده‌اند که یکی از نمودهای آن در تزیین سلاح‌‌‌ها و به ویژه شمشیرها بوده است. در این دو دوره، هنرمندان از انواع مختلف نقوش تزیینی چون گیاهی، هندسی، انسانی، جانوری و کتیبه‌ای جهت مزیّن نمودن شمشیرها بهره گرفته‌اند. تمرکز پژوهش حاضر، بر کتیبه‌های حاوی مضامین مذهبی بر روی شمشیرها بوده است. انتخاب شمشیر از میان انواع مختلف سلاح‌‌ها در این بررسی، به منظور تحدید دامنه‌‌ی موضوع؛ و همچنین تنوع قابل توجه کتیبه‌های به کار رفته بر شمشیرهاست. از اهداف اصلی این پژوهش، طبقه‌بندی صوری و محتوایی کتیبه‌های مذهبی شمشیرهای دوره‌های صفوی و قاجار و همچنین تبیین رابطه‌ی میان مفاهیم کتیبه‌ها با باورهای مذهبی بوده است و سؤال‌‌های این پژوهش عبارتند از: 1- کتیبه‌های مذهبی شمشیرهای دوره‌های صفوی و قاجار چه انواعی داشته‌اند‌ و با چه قلم نگارشی و فنون تزیینی بر شمشیرها نقش بسته‌اند؟ 2- چه رابطه‌ا‌ی میان مضامین کتیبه‌ها با باورهای مذهبی دوره‌های صفوی و قاجار وجود داشته است؟ روش تحقیق، توصیفی، تطبیقی - تحلیلی است و اطلاعات آن از طریق مطالعات منابع کتابخانه‌ای و بررسی‌های میدانی بر روی 50 نمونه‌ شاخص از شمشیرهای هر دو دوره (از70 نمونه کتیبه‌دار) استخراج شده ‌است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می‌دهد کتیبه‌‌های مذهبی شمشیرهای دوره‌های صفوی و قاجار گونه‌‌هایی چون کتیبه‌های قرآنی، اسماء‌الحسنی، دعایی و تعویذی، حدیث جوانمردی، عبارات استعانت از پیامبران و معصومین و بدوح دارند که اغلب با قلم نسخ و ثلث و با فنونی چون طلاکوبی و قلمزنی بر شمشیرها حک شده‌اند. استفاده از این نوع کتیبه‌‌ها با جنبه‌ی تعویذی و حفاظت‌بخشی، متأثر از باورها و نگرش مذهبی هنرمندان و صاحبان شمشیرها، جهت حمایت روحی و روانی جنگاوران و در راستای تداعی حضور الهی به عنوان حامی، یاریگر و نصرت‌بخش در جنگ بوده است، حتی اگر جنگ‌‌‌ها در راستای تحکیم دین اسلام و شعائر مذهبی نبوده باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Manifestation of Religious Beliefs on the Religious Inscriptions of Safavid and Qajar Swords

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mitra shateri 1
  • parastoo ghasemi 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Archaeology in Shahrekord University
2 Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
چکیده [English]

Social and religious beliefs and values have always influenced architecture, urban planning and arts. After Islam, inspiration from Islamic values and beliefs are evident in the creation of artworks. Since the Safavid era, the Shia faith became the official faith of the Persians; the relationship between the faith and different fields (especially arts) grow stronger. Religious concepts and beliefs in the Safavid and Qajar periods are reflected on various objects including metal, pottery, tiles, paintings and even textiles. One of its effects has been in the decoration of weapons, especially swords and this effect is more obvious in the field of inscription of data. In these two periods, artists have used a variety of ornamental motifs such as floral, geometric, human, animal and epigraphic motifs to adorn the swords. The focus of the present study was on inscriptions containing religious themes on swords. Inscription or calligraphy can be considered as one of the most important decorative motifs of Islamic art, especially in metalworking where the manifestation of the spirit of Islamic art and its religious aspects have added to the value and importance of such designs among Islamic artists and craftsmen. Sword making is one of the industries that has been widespread in the Safavid and Qajar periods. Epigraphic motifs are one of the decorative components in the art of Islamic metalworking, and the Iranian artist and craftsman, in addition to registering the owner and the creator (artist), using Qur'anic verses and prayers, etc., has used calligraphy as a decorative element. The selection of swords from different types of weapons in this study is intended to limit the scope of the subject, as well as the considerable variety of inscriptions used on this weapon. The main purposes of this study have been to classify the characteristics of the swords' Inscriptions in terms of form and content in these periods, and to explain the relationship between the content of inscriptions and religious beliefs in the Safavid and Qajar periods. It should be noted that in these periods, the sword has had ceremonial, symbolic and military uses. During the Qajar period, with the expansion of the use of firearms, the ceremonial use of white arms, especially the sword, became more prominent, but this feature didn't diminish its combat effectiveness. The authors are concerned with answering two questions: what kinds of religious inscriptions have been used on the Safavid and Qajar swords, and what writing scripts and techniques have been used on swords? And finally, what was the relationship between the inscription's content and religious beliefs in the Safavid and Qajar periods? The present study uses a descriptive – comparative – analytical approach. The information is collected through library research (studying library resources) and field study (investigating the samples of various inside and outside museums) as well as studying 50 distinctive samples (of the 70 inscribed samples, 25 samples were selected from each period) from two periods which are mainly kept in museums inside of the country such as the National museum, Reza Abbasi, Mostazafan Foundation, Golestan Palace, Kerman Military Museums, Bandar Anzali, Afifabad Shiraz, as well as using the website of some of the museums and collections outside of the country such as the Victoria and Albert Museum, Hermitage Museum, Qatar Museum, Caravana Collection, Christie's Auction in the United States and Bonhams in London. According to the findings of the research, the religious inscriptions of the Safavid and Qajar swords indicate types of Qur'anic verses, qualified names of God, prayer and talisman, chivalrous narration, seeking help of prophets and Imams and Baduh that are often written in Naskh and Thuluth scripts; using inlaying and engraving techniques. The type of selected script is not related to the type of inscription. The importance and effect of religious inscriptions regarding the choice of these methods of working on metals, which had characteristics such as strength and resistance to wear and tear, as well as the ability to function with elegance and beauty, should not be ignored. According to the studies conducted on the selected samples, in terms of quantity, the use of different types of religious inscriptions on the swords of the Safavid and Qajar periods, Qur'anic inscriptions, prayer and talisman and qualified names of God had the highest statistical distribution. The early inscriptions, Baduh, seeking help of prophets and Imams and chivalrous narration had the next highest importance. The use of these types of inscriptions with talisman and protective aspect have been influenced by the religious beliefs and attitudes of the swords' artists and the owners, for the psychological support of warriors, as well as for association of God’s presence as a supporter and helper in war; even if the wars weren't aimed at strengthening religious and Islamic rites. Since the advent of Islam, up to present day, the Shiites and the followers of Imams have been trying to show their devotion and reverence for them in various forms, especially in artifacts.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Safavid
  • Qajar
  • Sword
  • Inscription
  • Religious Beliefs
دوره 16، شماره 60
دی 1400
صفحه 97-121
  • تاریخ دریافت: 21 تیر 1399
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 27 آبان 1398
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 12 آذر 1399
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 10 شهریور 1400