عنوان مقاله [English]
There are unique masterpieces of wooden artworks from different periods after Islam, especially the Timurid and the Safavid eras, which in terms of technique and motifs significant similarities and differences can be seen between them. One of the special techniques used in these works is the Jovak technique. This technique is one of the techniques of wood industry, which has taken into account the track record of this work in conjunction with Khatam's technique, since no specific research has been carried out so far. Jovak is a unique technique applied in these works that has significant similarities to Khatam, yet at the same time, it remains an independent technique. One of the most important features of Jovak is the diversification of dyeing, as well as a technique that has a significant similarity to Khatam with differences in dimensions, and types of work. Two historical exemplars of this technique are the Jovak technique in the tomb of Sheikh Safi al-Din, located in the Porcelain House of this place, from the Safavid period, and the mausoleum of Khoja Ahmad Yasawi from the Timurid period. Khatam had been introduced before the Safavid dynasty, and in rare cases on wooden works such as the tomb of Sheikh Safi al-Din Ardebili, in which the techniques of Khatam and Jouk are applied, can still be seen. Outside of present-day Iran, this technique can also be seen in various buildings, including the tomb of Sheikh Ahmad Yasawi. This research attempts to study the doors of these two complexes with the purpose of comparing the motifs of Jovak on them. The question of the research is regarding the kind of similarities and differences in used Jovak on the doors of these two complexes apropos the differences in time and location of works. The method of study is descriptive comparative, and has been conducted with a comparative approach and library and field studies. The statistical population of this study consists of two historical buildings of the tomb of Sheikh Safi al-Din Ardebili and the tomb of Khoja Ahmad Yasawi, which is one of the valuable works of the Timurid period. The Porcelain House is the tomb of Sheikh Safi al-Din Ardebili, ten of which doors have been omitted due to similarities and ten examples have been selected for study. Also, three doors of the burial hall in the inner part of the tomb of Khoja Ahmad Yasawi, have been selected for analysis. The analysis of the works is presented quantitatively and qualitatively. The analysis was carried out on the doors of the tomb of Yasawi, on which Jovak is mainly used in the most complex and at the same time the smallest motifs. The results show that in the Timurid period, and even before that, the technique of Jovak and Khatam were considered the same, but the research has shown that the Jovak technique has been much older than the Khatam technique. Therefore, in addition to the square and rectangular sections, triangles were used in Jovak as well as bone, brass, ebony, betel palm etc. as materials. However, the complete form of khatam and its peak were in the Safavid period, during which the technique of Jovak had been executed by previous methods in larger dimensions of Khatam and on different planes. According to the survey and the examined examples, it can be concluded that the technique of Jovak flourished in the Timurid period. The studies on these doors also show that during the Timurid period, the Jovak technique had been carried out with elegance and accuracy, and its diversity was more than that, but in the following period, the Safavid period, the motifs and the levels of Jovak grew larger. Furthermore, the type of materials used on these doors during the Timurid era include a wider scope than bone, brass wire, etc., though in the Safavid era, colored wood was used as well. In general, the method of work and tools are the same, and considering the Jovaks on these doors, it is quite obvious that there are a number of specific designs of Jovak on the doors of both sets, including the designs of Zalfak, a staircase, Janaki and a sample of Jovak that is made of colored woods, cut at different angles and placed next to each other, with the edges in the form of a narrow strip which are finally put together after being cut in layers. However, the differences between these doors are mainly evident in the Jovaks on the doors of the tomb of Khoja Ahmad Yasawi. They are placed in the margins of the frame and the page, but on the doors of the tomb of Sheikh Safi al-Din Ardebili, the dimensions of the Jovaks have been executed identically in all parts of the door.