تداوم نقش‌مایه‌های گیاهی و هندسی ساسانی در تزئینات گچبری مسجد سیمره

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه هنر، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران

2 کارشناس ارشد پژوهش هنر، دانشگاه پیام نور

10.22070/negareh.2020.5119.2396

چکیده

از یافته‌های با اهمیت در جریان فعالیت‌های باستان‌شناسی سیمره واقع در شهرستان دره‌ شهر از توابع استان ایلام، تزئینات گچبری مسجد آن است. براساس تاریخگذاری، این مسجد متعلق به اواخر دوران اموی و اوایل عباسی است. سطوح داخلی دیوارهای مسجد سیمره، مزین به تزئینات گچبری با نقوش گیاهی و هندسی و از جمله بناهای مذهبی است که تزئینات الحاقی این بنا، متأثر از هنر گچبری ساسانی می باشد. غنای تزئینی این سطوح و عدم انتشار پژوهش‌هایی مستقل در رابطه با تأثیر هنر گچبری ساسانی بر هنر بکاررفته در تزئینات گچبری این بنا، از جملۀ دلایل پرداختن به این موضوع است. اهداف اصلی این پژوهش شناسایی گونه‌های نقوش تزئینی متأثر از گچبری ساسانی در تزئینات گچبری مسجد سیمره و سپس عناصر مشترک نقوش گچبری ساسانی با نقوش تزئینی مسجد سیمره است. بر این اساس سؤالات اصلی پژوهش عبارتند از : نقوش تزئینی متأثر از هنر گچبری ساسانی در تزئینات گچبری مسجد سیمره کدامند؟ چه شباهت هایی بین نقوش گچبری ساسانی با نقوش تزئینی مسجد سیمره وجود دارد؟ این پژوهش به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و به شیوه گردآوری اطلاعات کتابخانه‌ای انجام شده است. نتایج نشان می‌دهند که نقوش گیاهی و هندسی متنوعی در تزئینات مسجد سیمره تحت تاثیر گچبری ساسانی بودند. سطوح تزئینی گچبری‌های مسجد سیمره علاوه بر تقلید نقوش مختلف گیاهی و هندسی ساسانی و با وجود تشابهات نقوش ساسانی با نقوش مسجد سیمره از نظر ساختار ، بافت و طرح زمینه و حواشی تزئینی، نقش‌مایه گل تاتوره در نقوش گیاهی و در نقوش هندسی ذوزنقه، شکل بیضی و کادرهای تزئینی قاب‌های هندسی مسجد سیمره، همچنین تراکم و درهم پیچیدگی نقوش تزئینی گچبریهای مسجد سیمره نسبت به سطوح تزئینی گچبریهای ساسانی و طراحی مشخص و بزرگنمایی نقوش تزئینی، از نوآوری‌های بکاررفته در خلق آرایه‌های تزئینی مسجد سیمره است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Continuity of Sassanid Motifs in Stucco Decorations of Seymareh Mosque

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahtab Mobini 1
  • Tayebe Shakarami 2
1 PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Arts, Payame Noor University,Tehran, Iran .
2 MA in Art Research, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In the pre-Islamic era, stucco was used to cover the walls of palaces and temples, because the building materials such as stone, sandstone or crude clay were not very interesting, and the richness of decorated walls was more effective than bare walls. This type of architectural-related decorations in the history of Iran was technically and artistically developed and became one of the archetypes of the Sassanid era. Stucco patterns of this era include plant, geometric, animal and human designs. The use of these patterns in this period, with a few differences in quantity, was accompanied with some mythical concepts. The transfer of these designs from the Sassanid era to the cultural and artistic realms of Islam was in companionship with some changes such as selection of motifs based on their usage in religious or non-religious places and being measured according to the basic Islamic principles. This has made plant and geometric designs luckier than other designs. Under the influence of the Islamic view, these motifs tended to be abstract and the artists avoided direct imitation of nature. Fast curability, fast progression and the whiteness of stucco that were important in the decoration of Islamic buildings were among other factors involved in the re-use of stucco decorations in Islamic monuments. For these reasons, this art, along with its plant and geometric motifs, grew and developed. One of the important findings during the archeological activities in Seymareh, was the discovery of its mosque and its stucco decorations. According to the dates given, the mosque belongs to the late Umayyad and early Abbasid era. Considering the importance of stucco decorations in Iran, the main objectives of this study were, firstly, to identify types of decorative motifs influenced by Sassanid stucco, and then, to study the similarities and differences between the Sassanid stucco designs and the decorative designs of the Seymareh Mosque. Accordingly, the main questions of research are: what are the decorative motifs influenced by the stucco art of the Sassanid period in the stucco adornment of the Seymareh Mosque? What are the similarities between the Sassanid stucco designs and the decorative designs of the Seymareh Mosque? The results of the study show that the decorative motifs found in the mosque of Seymareh could be divided into two main types of plant and geometric designs. Meanwhile, in addition to design and implementation, the plant motif of the Datura flower, and trapezoidal, elliptical geometric patterns, as well as decorative margins used in circular, square and rectangular frameworks, differ from the decorative designs of the Sassanid era. In addition to the formal effect, the application of the principle of symmetry and repetition and the method of making stucco decorations by molding, casting and prefabricated methods, we can see other evidences of the continuation of the Sassanid period stucco art in the stucco decorations of the Seymareh Mosque. Such volume of similarity and influence should be considered as a result of the location of the city of Seymareh in the Sassanid period, which has been evidenced by many architectures decorated with its stucco decorations in areas such as Barzqavaleh, Qaleh Gori and Goriyeh. In most of the stucco specimens of Qaleh Gori and Barzqavaleh, which are from the archeological sites of the Sassanid period and close to the city of Seymareh, and in the present study, the specimens with decorations of the Seymareh Mosque were compared in terms of marginalization and framing according to geometric and plant elements. The use of flowers and leaves such as palm, artichoke, rosette and lotus in the corners of the decorative frames of the design is one of the elements that exists in the stucco of both areas of Bozorgvaleh and Qaleh Gori. Based on archaeological findings, stucco decorations have been one of the most important methods of arranging Sassanid architectural spaces in the city of Seymareh, which can be used to justify the textual connection between the stucco decorations of the Seymareh Mosque and the stucco decorations of the Sassanid period. However, in the study of the decorative patterns of stucco of the Seymareh Mosque, there is evidence of the creation of new arrays such as the tendency towards different designs of plant motifs such as pomegranate fruit, pine fruit, tulip buds or the design of the decorative borders of the frame. Circular or square and rectangular geometric shapes are observed along with the creation of new geometric arrays such as trapezoidal and oval geometric patterns. Therefore, it can be said that the artists who designed the stucco decorations of the Seymareh Mosque, by using these innovations and the complexity of geometric and plant decorative motifs in addition to imitation, sought to provide new decorative surfaces appropriate to the cultural and artistic atmosphere of the first Islamic centuries and created new texts.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Plant motifs
  • geometric motifs
  • Seymareh Mosque
  • Decorative Stucco
  • Sassanid Art