عنوان مقاله [English]
The land of Iran is one of the first and most important centers of production of various earthenware items. Painting on pottery has a long history. Pottery wares, as concrete examples, can lead us to the widest possible understanding of the life and civilization of different periods of the Iranian people with the least possible error. Most of the motifs used on pottery have a special meaning. Pottery artists have used different styles and motifs throughout the history of pottery making. Pottery artists have mixed different motifs with aesthetic and harmonic elements such as repetition, symmetry, balance, proportion, concentration, focus, parity, etc., on pre-historic pottery of Iran, and it is important to point out that in addition to the functional aspect of pottery in everyday life, with various geometrical, human, plant, animal, thematic and symbolic motifs they created on pottery, they sought to satisfy their aesthetic needs. The ingenious spirit of Iran has acquired its most complete embodiment in the so-called decorative arts; the arts which secret lies in the beauty of the role and design. These adornments and ornaments are prevalent in all of Iran's artistic creations. Some of the motifs are sacred and ritual, and originate from people's beliefs. These motifs have been naturally or abstractly depicted as ornaments on pottery. One of the motifs that have been used in Iranian artworks for a long time is the fish pattern, which is one of the most enduring themes in Iranian art. Man draws many motifs unconsciously, symbolically, he expresses his wishes and desires in various forms, including forms of beings. Iranian artists manifested the desire for water and the sacredness of the water with the symbol of fish on the pottery; a motif reminiscent of blessing and livelihood. Fish are widely associated with spiritual wisdom, fertility, and regeneration. The motif of the fish is often geometric and abstract in the decoration of Iranian pottery; this imagery conveys a rich cultural background and is rooted in the myths and beliefs of this land. The variety of the specific motifs and names of fish in Iranian culture indicates that this symbolic motif has varied in terms of design and form across diverse ethnicities and understandings. As a matter of fact, despite the unity of design in terms of principles and bases, it is very varied in depiction of details, and it definitely demonstrates its strong appeal and visual expression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the visual characteristics of fish motifs and their themes on pre-Islamic pottery in Iran. The research questions are as follows: 1- What are the visual features of fish motifs on pottery? 2- What are the themes of fish motif on pre-Islamic pottery in Iran? The method of this research is analytical-descriptive. Library sources, reputable sites for articles, forms, and e-books have been used to collect textual information. The statistical population of the research consisted of 9 shapes and 15 linear designs of fish motifs on pottery in the period between 4000 and 1000 BC in Iran. The method of analyzing the shapes is qualitative which have been described visually and thematically, alongside explaining the motifs on the pottery as well as emphasizing the role of the fish. The result is that everything in the system of creation is a symbol that implies the truth that one must seek out and enter into or out of the circle of existence to get it. The embodiment of the symbol can be understood as or derived from nature. The tendency for beauty has always inspired the beautiful human spirit, to the extent that the utensils of everyday use were no exception; the people who lived in the most primitive state depicted what inspired their beautiful nature and spirit as beautiful designs that they used on pottery. Pottery provides the most accessible and the most abundant surface for the motif, as well as visual pleasure, for various prehistoric peoples. The motif of the fish has the potential to transform into different designs and motifs, and has its own cultural and artistic expression among different ethnic groups. Fish have had a significant place in Iranian beliefs and culture. Due to its beautiful, flexible and varied form, the motif of the fish has been of interest, both visually and symbolically, to Iranian pottery artists who have approached nature in order to better understand and further their religious beliefs, to which the ritual of the people and the creators of their time helped. The symbolic motifs of fish refer to life, fertility, and water, which are the secrets of life and their depictions on earthenware objects give them life and spirit. The use of this motif on earthenware is a sign of human life formed of soil, water and mud.