عنوان مقاله [English]
Traditional arts following the advent of Islam and the expansion of its scope were maintained in the Islamic world with a view influenced by this religion. Art of metalwork which was considered one of the most significant traditional arts in this period managed to become one of the most functional and prominent arts in the Islamic world, specifically in Mosul, drawing on the heritage of this art-craft and innovation and creativity in production and various techniques of creation and design, engraving and carving various decorative themes consistent with Islamic world view. Mosul school of metalwork is one of the most exuberant and prominent schools of metalwork in the Islamic era, contemporary to the end of Seljuk reign and Ilkhanid period. During the splendor and prosperity of Mosul– during the rule of Badr al-Din Lu'lu (1233 - 1259 A.D. / 611-637 H.) – the Mosul artists managed to offer to the patrons and purchasers the most significant metalworks in terms of function and perfectness of form with which beauty and decoration are connected. Due to the important place of the Islamic era metalwork and the unique position of Mosul school of metalwork, a study on the latter based on its methods and techniques of production and decoration of forms and aesthetic form of the pieces seem necessary. Therefore this paper seeks to determine the qualities of the school of metalwork, production techniques and ornamentation and the concepts of Mosul metalworks. Moreover in this study, two stances of works made in this style, the box and the candlestick Badr al-Din Lu'lu, have been examined and analyzed.
The results of this study are as follow: the theme of “seated person holding a moon crest in his hand” is a special feature of Mosul school of metalwork, which has been examined for the first time. The fact that the decorative themes and motifs of Mosul metalworks reflect the continuity of Persian-Muslim artists’ experiences with an innovative identity, indicate that the traditional arts have always achieved sublimity and advancement in art through regarding history and innovation, forming itself a new tradition. The applied ornamentations in Mosul metalwork include animal decorations (human, animal, and birds), inscription decorations with Naskh and Kufic scripts. As to the production technique of metal wares in Mosul, the Sasanian era common methods were followed. This production technique which was mainly the molding and casting method especially continued till the rule of local governors and emirs in Mosul like the rule of the Zangids especially Badr al-Din Lu'lu. In Mosul metalwork unlike Persian, Egyptian and Syrian, instead of engraving, works are inlayed with copper, silver and gold. This paper uses the descriptive-analytical method and analyzing documents as data gathering method.