عنوان مقاله [English]
Islamic books have different artistic aspects. Rulings are among the most common decorations in Persian manuscripts during the 4th- 9th centuries (10th – 15th AD). Rulings are primarily red lines which had surrounded the texts or illustrations. This kind of simple and initial decorative efforts in Islamic manuscripts can be divided to functional and decorative ones. It means that some of the first rulings were just those which have had a function in the text and are called here as functional rulings. These types of rulings were used in scientific manuscripts such as mathematical texts to arrange numbers or letters. The second type of rulings used to decorate around the text of other decorations. The term “Djadval” itself has many meanings throughout the history, and up to now, we do not have a clear definition of the word ruling (Djadval) as well as any investigation for the possible origins of this art. Despite its importance in the Persian art of book, there is no study on rulings which specifically analyzes the evolution and the role of this decorative element. This paper will focus on Persian historical texts to identify this art. Persian prose and poetry texts convey some clues to clarify the historical development of this art. The authors have studied many early Islamic manuscripts (from the 4th to the 9th century Hegira) to find the rulings which might be compared to those mentioned in historical texts. The Mushafs (Qurans) are among the most important sources to refer to, since the first illuminations appeared in these manuscripts and rulings are commonly classified under Illumination art. The first manuscripts in which rulings encompassed the texts belong to the 6th century AH (12th century AD). Also some astrological texts have tables (Zayjeh) which comprise rulings. We tried to propose a more clear definition for the word “ruling” which involve different forms and styles of this art. The authors studied all the manuscripts, which were dated before the 15th century, in some Iranian libraries to trace this type of rulings. In addition, the historical texts also helped us to clarify the literal meaning of the Djadvals.
In many cases Djadvals are drawn not only in square or rectangular forms, but also in hexagonal or even polygonal and circular forms, all of which are called Djadvals in the texts of the same period; a term that is used in an astrological text in the 615 AH (Kuwait, Dar al-Athar, Inv. No.LNS 270 ms,) in which the authors have called polygonal shapes rulings. Therefore functional rulings can be described as those rulings which are drawn in different forms and are divided by cross lines. They are filled by abbreviated scientific facts which may be Arabic alphabets or numbers.
Using decorative rulings in a manuscript layout will result in a cohesive and integrated expression in the look of the book. According to the studied historical evidences, decorative rulings, which are drawn by rulers or compasses, can be described as the lines which have embraced texts or patterns and could be vertical, horizontal, diagonal and curved.
Zij, which are mentioned in pre-Islamic texts, are astronomical tables and Islamic texts that showed such tables were drawn by rulings. Ibn al-Nadim (10th century) has addressed such Zijs. Also Tabary speaks about the zij of Kharazmshah. The earliest remaining Islamic manuscript which has red rulings is a collection of mathematical works, written in Shiraz. These drawings are called rulings in the same text. Gradually, well proportioned pages appeared in masterpieces which were produced for rulers, and rulings became a simple but important and laborious art in the Persian art of the book. The first Persian poem which mentions the rulings is a poem by Amir Muizzi (12th and 13th centuries). Based on a poem by Abd al-Rafie al-Hiravi, which is quoted by Awfi’s Lubab al-Albab, rulings may be considered as decorative types and artistic works. Drawing rulings in early Islamic art of the book was not an independent work of art, and it was considered as a branch of illumination and would be done by the scribe him/herself or the illuminator. By the beginning of the 9th century, in the Timurid period for the first time an artist is considered as ruling-designer. This document belongs to Baysunghr; the famous Timurid prince. Rulings are gradually drawn more beautifully and delicately, and with more colored lines (gold, lapis lazuli, silver, orange or even purple). In this paper evidences show that the art of ruling has pre-Islamic origins. Rulings and tables are called forms (Shekl) or shapes (Surat). First evidences are found in medieval prose texts of the 11th-12th centuries. Ruling pen, compasses and ruling sticks, as tools that artists used, and some styles such as golden, silver, double and triple-outlined rulings are introduced.