عنوان مقاله [English]
The use of carving technique is one of the most commonly used architectural decorations in the Islamic buildings that the large number of samples being displayed in the mosques of Isfahan. Examining, studying and comparing each of them can be comprised the recognition of their cultural identity. The main purpose of the present study is to identify, classify and analyze the carving decorations based on the type of motifs in the building of the Atiqh Mosque in Isfahan and seek to answer the following questions: 1- Carving decorations of the Atiqh mosque in Isfahan in terms of motifs and themes, what features and samples are included? 2. What the differences and similarities are there in terms of motifs between building’s carving decorations in the Safavid and Qajar periods?
This research has been done by descriptive-analytical method based on field studies and library studies and qualitative analysis. The findings of the research show that the carving decorations of the Atiq mosque in terms of technique have three types of bossy, high reliefs (Barheshte) and negative engraving, and from the function point of view are divided into the inscriptions, trough, mihrab, flowerpot decorations, columns and semi-columns, stone windows and conical decorations. Accordingly, the different motifs of the mosque carvings in order of frequency are categorized in a variety of geometric shapes (frameworks, flowerpots decorations, moqarnas, decorative screws, knots and other geometric patterns), calligraphy (Nastaliq, Sols and Kofi), and Herbal designs (abstract). These motifs do not have a specific date in many cases, but the dated examples belong to the Safavid and Qajar periods.
In the study of the Characteristics of the Atiq Mosque in Isfahan, the works of carving belonging to the two Safavid and Qajar periods were studied and identified. What is clear is that realism far from the deep mystical and philosophical themes of Iranian art is obseved in the carvings of the Qajar period. These examples have been formed the visual and spatial features of the art of the Qajar period, and in the carvings of the Atiq mosque, these are formed massive, compact, and unreasonable, At the same time, the carvings of the mosque reflect the fact that during the Qajar period, We can see the creativity and variety of artistic decorations in the different spaces of the mosque, but on the other hand, when we see decorations of carvings and their functions from other aspects such as decorations, sizes, proportions, and shapes, the decorations of carving in the Qajar period have a lower status compared to its past periods, and especially the Safavid period. The shapes do not have the firmness and stability. The proportions are at a lower level than the balanced and harmonic proportions in the previous periods. The motifs of Carvings are in size and extent in limited examples compared to the Safavid period. The special features of Qajar carvings art compared to the Safavid period in the Atiq mosque include: Detailed and busy of motifs and elements in a frame, simplifying the carved lines and their execution without paying attention to the features of decorative arrays and the lack of attention to the form.
In the Architectural decorations, especially carving art, has not been yet given a clear typology and classification in the architecture of the Islamic period, and most typology of researchers have been based on a technique and in a particular building. Therefore, the decorations carving of the mosque of Atiq has been studied and typified by two criteria and principles. The main criterion of classification is based on the decorative stoneworks. The studied inscriptions in this research are often Safavid and Qajar samples are few. The Qajar inscriptions have been inscribed on yellow marble or brown color by Nastaliq script and Persian language, However, in Safavid specimens, mostly gray and black colors are used. The texts of these inscriptions are written with Nastaliq and Sols scripts and in Persian and Arabic languages. Throughs are also from the Safavid and Qajar era in which they are carved into painted or simple. Stone Mihrabs are often carved on yellow marble that date of the Safavid period is seen on the stone itself or other related decorations and there is no stone Mihrabs from the Qajar period from this mosque. Flowerpot decorations in this building have been used in the forms bossy decorations, complementary motifs and high reliefs (Barheshte) in the plinths which have no date and history. But about semi- column which are used extensively, many painted samples are seen in various geometric, plant and inscription motifs. Stone windows often made of marble that thay are with Arabesque motifs are worked in the form of compartmented. And most probably all of them have remained since the Safavid period. Therefore, it can be said that the mosque is unique in terms of carvings.