مطالعه تطبیقی ویژگیهای بصری و ساختاری نقوش هندسی کاشی‌های منتخب حرم امام رضا (ع) در دوره سلجوقی و تیموری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد هنر اسلامی، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران

2 عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده هنر دانشگاه شاهد,

10.22070/negareh.2020.4329.2173

چکیده

حرم مطهر حضرت علی ‌بن ‌موسی‌ الرضا ‌(ع) مجموعه باشکوهی از برترین نمونه‌های هنر کاشی‌کاری از دوران مختلف تاریخی‌ست که در دوران سلجوقی و تیموری به اوج قله‌های پیشرفت و کمال رسید. همچنین نقوش هندسی این کاشی‌ها که متضمّن معانی والایی هستند با نمایش وحدت در کثرت و کثرت در وحدت، رجوع به عالم توحید را تجسم می‌بخشند. به همین علت از این دو دوره بهترین نمونه‌های هنر کاشی‌کاری را در پیش چشم داریم. هدف اصلی این تحقیق شناسایی نقوش هندسی 2 نمونه منتخب از کاشی‌های مجموعه حرم مطهر حضرت رضا (ع) بر اساس ویژگی‌های بصری و ساختار رنگ و نقش، در دوره های تاریخی سلجوقی و تیموری است. این تحقیق در پی پاسخ به این سؤالات است: 1- در دوران سلجوقی و تیموری در کاشی‌های حرم امام رضا (ع) از چه نقوش هندسی بیشتر استفاده شده است؟ 2- در طی این دوران چه تغییراتی از لحاظ ساختار نقش، رنگ‌آمیزی، ترکیبات و بن نقوش ایجاد شده؟ 3- چه اشتراکات و تفاوت‌هایی بین نقوش هندسی کاشی‌ها وجود دارد؟ این مقاله به شیوه توصیفی_ تحلیلی انجام شده و در بستر تطبیقی تاریخی به تحولات کاشی‌کاری حرم می‌پردازد. روش جمع‌آوری اطلاعات نیز به شیوه ترکیبی از روش کتابخانه‌ای و مشاهده‌ای می‌باشد. نتایج این پژوهش، بر اساس چهار معیار بن نقوش، ساختار نقوش، ترکیبات حاصل از نقوش و رنگ‌آمیزی مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته‌اند، بیان می‌دارد که به لحاظ بن نقوش و ساختار آن‌ها در هر دو دوره مشابهت‌هایی وجود دارد، ولی ساختارها در دوره تیموری متنوع‌تر و نقوش ظریف‌تر و پیچیده‌ترند. پایه نقوش بر شکل هندسی ستاره‌ هشت‌پر استوار می‌باشد. کاشی‌ها از نظر رنگ‌آمیزی شبیه یکدیگر هستند؛ ولی ترکیب حاصل از نقوش (گره‌ها)، با وجود شکل مشترک ستاره هشت‌پر، نقطه اشتراکی با یکدیگر ندارند. در نتیجه شکل هندسی ستاره هشت‌پر می‌تواند به عنوان یک رمزگان معنادار بین هر دو دوره مورد نظر مشترک باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Comparative Study of Visual and Structural Features of the Geometric Patterns on Selected Tiles of the Imam Reza’s Shrine in the Seljuk and Timurid Periods

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zohreh Sepasi 1
  • Khashayar Ghazizadeh 2
1 MA student of Islamic art; faculty of art, shahed university, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Islamic art, Faculty of art, Shahed university, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Iranian culture and civilization, despite the ethnic and racial diversity of the inhabitants of this land, the political developments and the invasion of the invaders and settlers, have always been regarded as an appropriate context for the advancement of Iranian art. Iranians have been involved in decorative arts as well as painting since ancient times, one of which being exquisite tile art.
Decorating tiles in Islamic buildings as valuable treasures reflects the cultural ideas and religious beliefs of the artists of all times, and their taste and ability in this art have endured. Tile art, which gradually progressed from pre-Islamic centuries, reaches its peak of development and perfection in the Seljuk and Timurid times. Tile, which is the most beautiful and unique decorative element of architecture in the interior and exterior of buildings, not only creates the most spectacular color scenes and motifs in Iranian buildings, especially in religious sites, but it also is a factor in the strength and cover for the building. The finest examples of tile history of Iran, the inner and outer surfaces of the sacred doorstep of Imam Ali ibn Musa al-Reza (AS), are in front of our eyes through the many ups and downs of this land, making this valuable art endure, rather than be dissolved and forgotten.
Geometric motifs have been used in pre-historic times in Iranian artworks, examples of which include pottery left from the civilizations of the hills of Sialk, Shush, Tal Bacon, and more. In the Islamic era, geometric motifs, especially knots, have been used in a variety of visual and decorative arts such as architecture and tiling of religious and non-religious buildings. The numerous and varied geometrical motifs (knots) seen in Iranian tile art and influencing the architectural ornamentation of other Islamic countries have generally been derived from a combination of a number of basic shapes, and by observing the constant rules of repetitive drawing have also been expanding throughout eras. These motifs, in addition to providing the viewer with visual pleasure, imply higher meanings within themselves that must be interpreted in order to be understood. From the Islamic point of view, these motifs and the way of their creation are symbolic ways of expressing the monotheism, which is the supernatural doctrine of divine unity as the origin and resurrection of all creatures. Through his sacred artistic spirit, the Muslim artist has achieved a two-dimensional reality in his artistic creations by departing from the three-dimensional elements of the creation world. In a concise way, this artist portrayed Islamic geometric art based on qualitative roles, based on mathematics and geometry, bringing together geometric shapes to achieve an element such as knot, which is in fact a mysterious knot of existence and polished the soul to prepare it to receive the truth.
The holy shrine of Imam Ali-ibn-Musa al-Reza (AS) is a magnificent collection of the best tile art examples from different periods, which reached its peak of progress and perfection in the Seljuk and Timurid periods. Moreover, the geometric patterns of these tiles, with spiritually elevated meanings, embody a return to the world of monotheism by displaying unity in plurality and plurality in unity. This is why the best examples of tile art have appeared in these two periods. The present research aims to answer the following questions: Which geometric patterns have been used more often in the tiles of Imam Reza (AS)’s Shrine during the Seljuk and Timurid periods? What changes have occurred in the structures, colors, compositions and foundations of the patterns? And what similarities and differences exist among the geometric patterns of the tiles?
This study has used a descriptive-comparative method and a historical analysis to show the developments in the Shrine’s tiles. The required data have been collected using a combination of library oriented and observational methods as well as tools such as books, articles, notes, tables, computer, and by referring to the tiles of the Imam Reza (AS)’s Shrine as well as their images. The geometric patterns were analyzed based on their foundations, compositions and colors, and the findings indicated similarities between the two periods in terms of the foundations and structures of the patterns and showed that most of the patterns are based on the geometric shape of the eight-pointed star. The tiles are quite similar in color, especially in the primary colors, but the compositions of the patterns (strap work) have no similarity, although all of them have the same shape. Although there were many tile samples from the Timurid period, only one from the Seljuk period, the geometric shape of the eight-pointed star, can be considered a meaningful common code in both periods.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Geometric Patterns
  • Tilework
  • Shrine of Imam Reza (AS)
  • Eight-pointed Star
  • Seljuk Era
  • Timurid Era