عنوان مقاله [English]
During the Safavid period, Iran underwent great political and social changes. King Ismail, the first Safavid king, declared Shi'ism the official religion of Iranian society and in addition to establishing a unified dynasty, prevented its dissolution in face of the Ottoman Empire and the Uzbeks. Inside the country, Safavid kings maintained a balance between different political groups, which led to the establishment of complex social, political, and economic relations, as well as between the people and the government. Since in any political and social system, the relations that lead to its stability and strength can be predicted, the impact of these relations on the various pillars of society can be predicted. It seems that these conditions also exist in the social systems of art. Researchers who have used sociological studies in the field of art rely on theoretical assumptions with different implications. On the other hand, this relationship has affected artists in the Safavid period. Painting workshops have always been in the shadow of the support of the Shah and the influential supporters of the court throughout the history of Iranian painting. This support also existed traditionally during the reign of the Safavid Shah Tahmasb. With the support of the court, the painters have illustrated books such as Shahnameh and Khamseh Nezami. However, since the middle of the tenth century AH, due to the escalation of political wars between Iran and the Ottomans in the northwest and the Uzbeks in the northeast, as well as the upheavals in internal affairs, attention to art decreased. The purpose of this article is to obtain the factors and reasons that have changed the political and cultural developments during the reign of the Safavid Shah Tahmasb and its effect on the painting of this period according to the theory of reflection. Accordingly, this study seeks to answer the question of how Iranian painters during the reign of Shah Tahmasb I showed social changes in their paintings. In fact, this theory has shown us how socio-political influences affect social activities, including art. This theory holds that art is the mirror of society (or is conditioned or determined by society). This approach focuses on researching works of art to enhance our knowledge and understanding of society. The reflection approach in the sociology of art includes a wide variety of research, which is the common ground of all of them (art is the mirror of society). Due to its diversity of social reflections and the views of sociologists such as Plekhanov, Max Weber, Panofsky, Hauser, and Wolf, this approach examines the various conditions of society associated with political, cultural, social, and ideological life. The research method is descriptive-analytical and has been used to collect materials from library sources. The Safavid government has gradually reduced its authority over Ghezelbash and increased the authority of Shiite clerics. At the same time, the court system, and the sufficient skill of the Iranians in that regard, had dominated the general structure of the administrative system of government. These changes took place during Shah Tahmaseb's dominance and after a period of turmoil and chaos caused by the power that Ghezelbashs considered to be both a right and a responsibility in the court. However, the pressure exerted on the Shah from all sides, as the center of political and religious movements, caused his influence on members of society, including artists, to disperse from the court. This dispersion, along with the support of wealthy newcomers and the Indian court, led painters to experiment with a variety of subjects and paintings, which gradually changed the previous way and indicated independence in the type of commission and dealing with everyday subjects. Therefore, the following results can be enumerated:
- The court's support for the royal workshops and its reflection in the colorful works have shown the importance of the painted manuscripts in the court.
- The influence of the Shiite religion that led to Shah Tahmasb's attention to religious affairs has shown a pervasive spirit in the culture and society of that time. Producing and illustrating religious issues in works such as Shahnameh and Khamseh Nezami, in continuation of books of divination, have all been performed with religious themes.
- Independence of artists from the court led to a change in the choice of painting subjects.
- Changes in the economic pace of society and the emergence of the low-income wealthy as the new social stratum led to the production of works that were weaker in terms of pride and less colorful in terms of color.
- Changing the themes of the paintings drew the painting towards more social and popular themes.