عنوان مقاله [English]
After the advent of Islam in Iran, the Islamic rulings imposed some restrictions on men's use of jewelry, while in various Islamic periods, especially in the Safavid period, based on records and texts, the dazzling glory of jewelry used by men of the high classes of society indicates the continuity, dynamism and flourishing of men's jewelry industry during this period. On the other hand, the mutually beneficial relations between the Safavid rulers and the Mughals of India had a great impact on the cultural and artistic fields at the courts of both countries. The production and consumption of jewelry and ornaments was no exception for sure. Since nowadays the use of jewelry in the public mind is more common among women, most of the research in this area is limited to studies on jewelry of women. So, men's jewelry and its types are less known or introduced among these two civilizations. Therefore, this article has been written with the aim of studying the types of jewelry of male courtiers in the Safavid period, and as a comparative study to determine the commonalities and differences between the jewelry used by men of this period and the jewelry of male courtiers at the court of the Mughals in India. In order to achieve this goal, a case study of these works in the Safavid period has been done based on the samples and texts or jewelry depicted in the paintings and its comparison with contemporary works in India (the Mughals of India). These works and artifacts have been mainly selected from remaining texts, especially travelogues, or from works and artifacts of Islamic Republic of Iran’s museums or abroad museums. The main questions of the present study are, based on the surviving works and artworks, what jewelry did the men at the two courts of the Safavids and the Mughals of India use? And what are the differences and similarities between the jewelry of the male courtiers of the Safavid period and the Mughals of India? It should be noted that due to the importance and multiplicity of diverse works of art in these historical periods, this research can be considered as an introduction to the wide range of jewelry, as one of the types of industrial arts and its various applications, and can illuminate an important part of the history. Due to the close political, cultural and artistic commonalities and proportions that existed between Iran and India in the period between the tenth and the early eleventh centuries AH, the influence and effectiveness of themes, forms, structure or even the technologies available in various fields of art in these two countries occur more than ever. The cultural and artistic momentum of this period is especially about jewelry making and the use of jewelry among men. The ornaments and Jewelry left from this period from the courts of both governments reflect the general commonalities in the shape and types of jewelry, and the styles of construction and decoration in this industry and art. Also, based on the evidence, it can be concluded that in the use of some types of jewelry in the Safavid court, along with decorative function, religious, talismanic, and amulet-wise functions had also been considered in manufacturing of all kinds of bracelets, rings, and sometimes necklaces, while in the court of the Mughals in India, the decorative feature of ornaments was clearly preferred over other aspects. The quantity of works engraved with religious themes, the mass of precious stones used, as well as the use of gold in men's jewelry, despite the prohibition of Islamic rulings, are among the reasons for this claim. Overall, jewelry in both countries seems to be a symbol of people's social status and rank which shows power, wealth and beauty. In this regard, it is suggested that in order to fully understand this part of industry and art in both countries, studies of gemology, carving and various types of jewelry decoration should be considered in future research. The descriptive-comparative research method and the information used have been obtained by the method of acquisition and through library resources and field study in museums inside or outside the country. The results of the research indicate that jewelry was used as a symbol to represent the social status of individuals in both the Safavid and Mughal states of India, and the close relationship between these governments, caused many commonalities in the types of jewelry, materials and methods of decoration. Despite minor differences such as the use of gemstones or greater diversity in the types and forms of jewelry in India during the Mughal period, many of the forms, materials, metals, and jewelry used for decoration by these two groups, such as collars, rings, earrings, belts, and armbands, were common.