تحلیلی بر مضامین کتیبه‌های مذهبی ایوان‌های صحن عتیق حرم مطهر رضوی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مطالعات تطبیقی و تحلیلی هنر اسلامی، دانشکده هنر، واحد تهران مرکز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استاد گروه پژوهش هنر، دانشکده هنرهای کاربردی، دانشگاه هنر، تهران، ایران

3 استاد گروه گرافیک، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

4 دانشیار گروه نمایش،دانشکده هنر،واحد تهران مرکز ، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

10.22070/negareh.2020.5685.2557

چکیده

حرم مطهر‌رضوی امروزه چون موزه‌ای مجموع هنرهای‌اسلامی را از ادوار مختلف تاریخی درون خود جای داده است. اسناد این موضوع، کتیبه‌هایی است که در ابنیه حرم از دیرباز تاکنون موجود است؛ قدیمی‌ترین صحن حرم‌رضوی که عتیق (انقلاب) نامیده می‌شود؛ به دلیل نزدیکی با روضه ‌منوره و اهمیتی که داشته، کتیبه‌هایی را از دوران تیموری تاکنون درون خود جای داده، که بیشترین آن‌ها دارای مضامین مذهبی است. این کتیبه‌ها که از جوهر معنوی اسلام سرچشمه می‌گیرد اطلاعاتی را از شرایط اجتماعی و مذهبی ادوار تاریخی مختلف، نشان می‌دهد؛ با توجه به این مهم، اهداف پژوهش: -معرفی کتیبه‌های‌مذهبی چهار ایوان صحن‌عتیق، -آشنایی با مضمون و محتوای کتیبه‌ها -علت استفاده و ارتباط میان مضامین و جایگاهشان در بنا است. سوالات پژوهش این است که: -بیشترین کتیبه‌های مذهبی در ایوان‌های صحن‌عتیق مربوط به چه دوره تاریخی است؟ -مضامین و محتوای هر یک از کتیبه‌های مذهبی چه بوده؟ -علت استفاده و ارتباط میان مضامین کتیبه‌ها و جایگاهشان در صحن‌عتیق چه بوده است؟ روش‌ انجام تحقیق توصیفی – تحلیلی بوده و گردآوری مطالب آن با استفاده از منابع مکتوب و بررسی میدانی، انجام شده است. تجزیه و تحلیل نیز با تکیه بر روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی، نهایت در قالب چهار جدول طبقه‌بندی و بررسی شده است. براساس نتیجه پژوهش -بیشترین کتیبه‌های صحن، متعلق به دوران صفوی بوده است. -کتیبه‌های‌مذهبی به آیات قرآن و احادیث اختصاص یافته و مضامین آن‌ها بر اساس توحید، رسالت انبیا (ع) و دعوت انسان‌ها به فرایض دینی، دوستی آل‌محمد(ص) و زیارت قبر مطهر حضرت ‌رضا‌ (ع) بوده است. -انتخاب مضامین نیز کاملاً با جایگاه آن در بنا مرتبط بوده است؛ برای مثال در ایوان‌جنوبی(ایوان‌طلا) که ورود به روضه‌منوره است، آیات سوره مریم کتیبه شده که اشاره به فضای امنی که زائرین به آن وارد می‌شوند دارد و همچنین سوره یاسین، که به قلب قرآن معروف است، استفاده شده که نشان‌دهنده قلب این مکان مقدس (روضه ‌منوره) بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

On the Analysis of Themes Used in Religious Inscriptions of Atiq Courtyard Porches of Razavi Holy Shrine

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maloosak Rahimzadeh Tabrizi 1
  • Qolamali Hatam 2
  • Mohammad khazaie 3
  • mohammad aref 4
1 Deprtment of Art stady, College of Art, Islamic Azad university, Central Branch, Tehran, Iran
2 PhD, Professor, Art University, Tehran, Iran
3 PhD, Professor, College of Art, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
4 PhD, Associate Professor, College of Art, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Razavi holy shrine, due to the blessing of the shrine of Ali ibn Musa al-Reza (PBUH), has always been under the care and attention of rulers, artists, etc. Today, it houses all the Islamic arts like a museum. The inscriptions that have been available in the buildings of the shrine for a long time prove this claim. Inscriptions that have been restored many times, by preserving history and their themes, show the fate of the building in different historical periods. The oldest courtyard of the Razavi shrine, which is called Atiq (Revolution) due to its closeness to the Golden Dome and its importance, contains inscriptions from the Timurid period until now; most of which have religious themes. These inscriptions, which originate from the spiritual essence of the Holy Quran and the words of the Imams, express information which is taken from the social and religious conditions of each historical period, especially the Safavid era. According to this important point, the research questions are: - What historical period do the most religious inscriptions on the porches of the old courtyard belong to? -What are the themes and contents of each of the religious inscriptions? -What was the reason for the use and connection between the contents of the inscriptions and their place in the ancient courtyard?
The research method is descriptive-analytical and its contents have been collected using written sources and field research. The analysis is also based on the method of qualitative content analysis; finally classified and reviewed in the form of four tables. The findings show that most of the inscriptions in the courtyard belong to the Safavid era and are dedicated to verses of the Qur’an and hadiths and their themes are based on monotheism, the mission of the prophets and the invitation of human beings to religious duties, friendship of the family of Muhammad and visiting the holy tomb of Imam Reza (PBUH). The choice of themes was also completely related to their place in the building. For example, in the south porch (Golden Porch), which is the entrance to the golden dome, the verses of Surah Maryam are inscribed, which refers to the safe atmosphere into which pilgrims enter, and also Surah Yasin, which is known as the heart of the Qur'an, is used to indicate the heart of this holy place (shrine). In the north porch (Abbasi porch), there is an inscription of Surah Jumu'ah which is completely suitable for the function of the minaret and shows the invitation to prayer. In the east porch (Naqareh porch) Surah Al-Muzzammil the theme of which is the invitation to perform religious duties and the verses of Surah Noor are inscribed which is very appropriate regarding the function of this porch and its location which is east; as if the sound of the Naqareh reminds us of God's ownership of the world and performing religious duties at the same time as the sun rises. The western porch (porch of the clock) is also inscribed with Surah Al-Insan, which is also conceptually associated with the function of the porch. The clock represents time and is the reminder of the time of human creation, and the creation of the world is best expressed by quoting this Surah. In addition, the inscriptions of the Throne verse in two places of the porch have been an emphasis on the creation and ownership of the Lord and the principle of monotheism.
However, the subject of coordinating the content of verse inscriptions with the use of the building has been common in the past, as in the book of the first inscriptions in the architecture of the Islamic period of Iran, examples of this have been given. What is considered about religious inscriptions in this place and from the Safavid period onwards, which is repeated by heresy in other periods, is bringing hadiths about the honor of the Shiites and the intercession to the Prophet (PBUH) and Imam Reza (AS) for the pilgrims as the reward of their pilgrimage. Such inscriptions are quoted from the Prophet (PBUH) and Imams (AS) along with the verse of purification or the hadith of al-Kisa which is about the infallibility and purity of the family of the Prophet (PBUH). It has been aimed at emphasizing the Shiite religion. The fact that Shia has been the official religion of Shiite Iran for centuries seems normal today, but in Safavid times, this issue was effective in historical, social, cultural and religious conditions. Only by reflecting on the inscriptions of the Abbasid porch, the reason for selecting and bringing the sovereignty verse along with Surah Kawthar together with Nadali and Durood and a part of Tawassul prayer, a message based on the divine will and providence regarding the establishment of Safavid government and Shiite dignity is specified.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Razavi Holy Shrine
  • Religious inscriptions
  • Atiq Courtyard Porches
  • Inscription theme
  • Safavid