عنوان مقاله [English]
Iranian rug is one of the most precious and ancient arts in Iranian culture and art history. Safavid era was the utmost of outstanding blossoming of rug weaving art in Iran. Safavid-era artists created numerous novelties in designation and coloring of rugs. Designs of rugs weaved during the Safavid time specifically distinguished them from other rugs. Such quality was the result of a couple of factors such as weaving the rugs under support of the Safavid court, the influence of the court designers on all steps of creating artistic works including rug weaving, availability of any kind of raw materials and colors and dyes both from local and from foreign markets, and prevalence and acceptance of the rug business by the businessmen, especially in overseas markets. During the Safavid time, pictorial rug designs, which are mingled with lofty literary concepts, were especially attended to by rug weavers and designers. A good example of those rugs was Sangeško rug which was weaved during the Safavid time and includes large and small margins and background as well as some pictures of some Iranian literary stories with romantic, epic and mythical themes. Presence of these motifs in the carpets has roots in rituals and beliefs of ancient Iran. The beautiful design and the role of Sangeško carpet became the inspiration of Iranian and non-Iranian rug designers and weavers, especially in 19th century. One of Iranian rugs in which Sangeško designs are evident was created in the Qajar time. This rug looks completely like Sangeško with some minute differences, however; there are several common literary themes and concepts in the two rugs. So, it is worth considering how those differences were created in Qajar rug. The presence of literary and mythical themes such as Meetings (Leili and Majnoun & Shirin`s bath) and Martial arts (hunting scenes), as well as mythological themes, including Gereft-o-Gir (Entanglement), Simorgh (Phoenix), the Dragon and etc. in both Safavid and Qajar rug designs is the reason for the study and analysis of this research. The purpose of this research is to analyze the concepts of motifs and to identify the influence of Safavid Sangeško rug on its Qajar corresponding one and to recognize similarities and differences of these two rugs in terms of overall structure, that is composition, design and color. The question is: 1- How the effects of the Safavid rug, i.e. Sangeško, were manifested in the Qajar rug thematically and conceptually? 2- what are the meanings and concepts of the common elements used in the design of these two rugs? And 3- what are the differences between the two rugs in terms of theme and concepts? This is a descriptive-analytical research which takes a comparative approach. All data were collected using library research method and referring to photos taken in museums by the author. The results of the study revealed that due to numerous similarities between the two rugs, the themes of the Safavid rug were the sources of designs and themes of the Qajar rug. All themes of Sangeško rug are present in Qajar rug. The moving form of human and animal, even the instruments, follow the same root and pattern in both rugs. However, there are some distinguishing points, both in margins and background. Qajar rug’s designation is not merely limited to Sangeško and has undergone some modifications in some images, background and margins. For example, the meeting scene of Leili and Majnoun, and designation of the All-seeds tree are a bit different. Qajar artist weaver has added some new themes to the background and modified the margins in this scene. This reveals that the Qajar rug is not a mere copy of its Safavid corresponding rug and, borrowing some concepts from the original texts, the artist has rebuilt some scenes based on his own understanding. In composition of the Qajar rug, the position and location of the designs are of no specific order, and each literary scene has occupied a part of the background. Another point about the Qajar rug is that animal and human bodies in that are more harmonious. On the other hand, the Safavid rug includes simple ornaments and represents no chiaroscuro, while the Qajar rug has different colorings and ornaments. The Qajar artist has applied the prevalent art in Qajar time, which mostly included naturalistic designs with specific coloring and contrast, and has bestowed special attention on details such as wrinkles on the cloths and the third dimension of the objects and bodies. Mythical themes used in Sangeško rug are related to mystic concepts, which might have been influenced by Gnostic and Sufi thoughts and schools that were prevalent during Safavid time and especially inside the Safavid court, the effect of which is evident in design of the Qajar rug as well.