نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 گروه سفال و سرامیک، دانشکده معماری و هنر، دانشگاه کاشان
2 گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و هنر دانشگاه کاشان، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
In the study of the evolution of pottery art, the fifth and the sixth centuries are the golden age of this art. The Seljuk era in Iran (Kashan city) and Syria (Raqqa city) in Ayyubid dynasty are two important areas in the production of art works and industries, especially valuable ceramic works in the sixth and the seventh centuries in the middle of the year. The ceramics and pottery art of these two periods reached the highest level of progress; both in terms of structure and variety of motifs. The kings of the Seljuk and Ayyubid dynasties were important patrons of art, artists and craftsmen, and admired them in their courts. The importance of Seljuk period in Islamic art was that it stabilized a more elevated situation in Iran. Ayyubid period was important because it played a transitional role between Seljuk and Mamluk styles and influenced the field of art. One of the unique products of these two eras has been small, low and short ceramic tables (tapurt or tabouret) that were a place for putting vessels such as jugs, tea-cups and flowerpots on them, and were used in decorating architectural patterns and elements. The low ceramic tables of Iran and Syria come from cultural and traditional civilizations. These works are common and similar productions of the Seljuk period in Iran and Ayyubid dynasty in Syria that war, migration (of artists and scientists), trade and geographical situation (for example Raqqa city in Syria was located near the Euphrates river and has been in connection with Mesopotamia) were the reasons of the similar effects between two regions, and they have been linked in terms of historical-artistic context, and their production in none of the other eras was comparable to these two regions. The Raqqa city was just a center out of Iran’s area that produced notable ceramic vessels and tiles with good quality and new techniques. We can see the influences of Iran and Egypt on these ceramic pieces. The Iranian samples have influenced the Syrian samples. The aim of this study is that by comparing and matching, while dealing with the similarities and differences between tables (tapurts or tabouret) of these two important areas, it has examined the evolution and development of these two areas through analyzing the decorations, forms, the way of construction and the influence of these works to understand the quantitative and qualitative knowledge of construction and their decoration. There is a variety of ceramic tables or tapurts, such as triangular (a stand with three holes on them), rectangular (one of the common and important styles of ceramic stands with two holes on them in Syria) and hexagonal forms, but due to the similarity of hexagonal tables in Iran and Syria, we just focused on hexagonal samples in this research. Here in this research we have three questions: 1- what elements are used to decorate the Iranian and Syrian tables? 2- What are the similarities and differences between the forms and decorations of the Iranian and Syrian tables? 3- Which executive techniques were used for creation and decoration of these ceramic tables? This study is qualitative in method and depends on description and analysis in methodology. Data collection has been done using library research and field study. In this regard, with respect to reliable books and websites, fourteen pieces (six samples of Iranian tables and eight samples of Syrian tables) were collected and analyzed in terms of style, decorations, form and evolution of change. For analysis, two samples of Iranian tables have been studied through field research method and a direct visit to museum (pottery and glassware museum of Tehran). Simple to complex decorations (simple and less embellished to complex motifs), glazes (monochrome and simple glazes to complex and valuable glazes like luster), elements of architecture (columns, balustrade, mihrab, muqarnas and arch) and techniques of structures of these works (simple to complex molding, like two-storey tables) show progress in the evolution of tables. This study shows that these tables have general similarities and differences in structure, decoration and glaze. Regarding structure and decoration of tables, the applied molding technique and architectural elements (like mihrab, muqarnas, columns, two-storey structure and others) are bold and important in decoration. According to the architectural elements of each region, structure and decoration of tables have been inspired by them. The use of arcuate elements and others like mihrab, muqarnas, column, grating and inscription have had the most impact on structure and decoration of tables in both regions to the extent that studying these tables and the elements on them can be an analytical subject for analyzing architectural elements in these two regions and for fixing the possible defects in the path of architectural analysis.