عنوان مقاله [English]
Orsi, an Iranian handmade pop-up, has long adorned Iranian buildings, from the Safavid to the Qajar eras, and can be seen everywhere in Iran. In fact, Orsi entered the Iranian architecture during the Safavid period, and undergoing little changes in the Zandiyeh period, it gained considerable prominence in the Qajar dynasty. Existing evidence indicates that Orsi was not used publicly, but in many buildings, including palaces, some mosques and Hussainiyas as well as the homes of those who were financially capable, it was an architectural and decorative element. Orsies are not only decorative and functional elements, but they can include tonality, control of light and heat entering the building, remove insects and creatures, affect the acoustics of space and create a wide exterior view. They have been fabricated and dealt with in various geometric, Islamic or hybrid designs in varying sizes.
Orsi is a wooden pop-up with one of the prominent elements in Iranian architecture. Their use has been around for a long time and has been prevalent in many buildings in the regions and cities of Iran. Orsi is one of the original Iranian arts and has never been devoid of Persian monuments from the Safavid period to the Qajar period.
From the definitions of Orsi, it can be concluded that the word Orsi refers to windows that open in a specific, sliding, upward manner, leading to a chamber at the top with a nail, or a bolt that lies beneath it. These types of windows can be simple with smooth and colorless glass or even made of iron sheet or genuinely knit and colored glass in which the glass may be found in a certain order according to color, principles and performance. However, it is possible to discuss the type of window and its dimensions. Genuine and traditional Orsi windows are available in single, double, triple, quadruple, quintuple and septuple windows, and in some cases in nine or twelve piers, depending on the type of building in which they are used.
Orsies are mostly observed in houses among other buildings and Ardabil houses have not been left without this architectural blessing. Decorative elements are observed in the extensive architecture which remains among Ardabil’s historical monuments and Orsi, with its unique features as an Iranian art, is no exception. The Orsies left in the Ardabil houses have been reminiscent of Zandieh era, and especially the Qajar period. They have a wide range and allow us to examine them in different ways. The question therefore arises: Is there any other component such as ornamentation or proportion to their classification besides the historical delineation of Qajar Orsies of Ardabil? What are the differences or similarities in their shape, structure, ornamentation or other characteristics in these three time periods, when compared to the Arsacid houses? In order to answer the above-mentioned questions, Orsi, in these three suggested timespans, has been studied in terms of the differences and similarities in frequency, design and role, overall shape, color of glass, orientation, use of vegetative motifs, Quranic verses, divine names as well as construction techniques. Therefore, according to the nature of the research, a descriptive-analytical method was used and the information was collected using library research method as well as field research. According to the researches, it can be said that the Orsies of the Qajar-era houses in Ardabil during the three phases of the Qajar period depict similarities in orientation and design, and many differences in terms of the use of color in the glass of Orsi, as well as the use of vegetative motifs and the divine names on the beadings of the Orsies and their general shape. Given the similarities and differences in the presented analysis, it can be stated that from the first to the third period, the use of colored glass and motifs and patterns as well as other decorative arts in Orsies have been decreased and the decorations have become less frequent and simpler. The quality of the Qajar Orsies in Ardabil has declined during three periods from the early to the late part of this era.