عنوان مقاله [English]
The goal of the present research is to propose step by step models of knot design based on the most important principle of knot design (generative) within the realm of Islamic Iranian architectural tradition. In the present study, in addition to introducing the common methods to design knots, the knot designing based on grinding (generative) has been analyzed. Our emphasis is on the importance of knot designing method based on the principle introduced, and thus it is emphasized that unlike the existence of written documents and works remaining from traditional Islamic architecture, some efforts have been carried out by a group of western researchers to recreate the initiative knot designing methods. As it has been proposed by some researchers regarding the Iranian origin of the knot generation, and also the emphasis on logical and mystic principles in knot designing fundamentals, the most important method in designing and generating knots refers to knot crushing in Iranian architectural tradition which has been documented by many scholars and contemporary traditionalists as the basis for knot designing. The basic point in the present study is to propose a knot designing method based on generation principles and the generation of knot regarding the background knots. This method, known as the most important characteristic of drawing and designing knots in traditional arts, is based on the fact that if one of the ‘slow’ (acute) knots is drawn using one of radius construction infrastructure networks or polygons, and then the constituents of the designed knot are first made ‘fast’ (obtuse), then made ‘slow’ and subsequently made ‘fast’ again to the extent that it can reach a knot background with all possible states called “knot in knot”, the knot generation method is achieved through this trend. In this method the main hypothesis is that: if a knot is generated based on a crushing (generative) principle, it is not out of the constituents known as the models mentioned above. In other words, the present study is based on general knot designing principles, presupposing the lack of the existence of constituents other than the ones mentioned above in drawing knots, using crushing or generative method which is described above. Accordingly, in the present research we try to first introduce and design the knots through its constituents and show frequent and consecutive generation methods of the knots through the background knots. Thus, the present research has been carried out using a descriptive, analytic, and comparative methods as well as library research method. This study was based on the question that what are the rules, characteristics and geometrical language of generation regarding knot grinding? How have knot states been achieved using grinding method and how have generative knot tools been created? How have knots’ permanence and connectivity been practiced in using grinding method? Accordingly, and to respond the questions above, step by step knot generations have been carried out.
This study is based on the main hypothesis that there are not any external constituents in generating the knots. Therefore, to test the hypothesis, first the step by step design of knot generation has been represented, and then the principles and foundations of knot crushing have been utilized to prove that there are not any external constituents for the knots in the present research. Thus, to achieve better results, one of the most complicated, complete, and functional methods of knot designing and rectangular knots, called the slow knot of ‘Sormeh dan-e-Chahar-Shamseh’ was utilized to do the tests within ‘knot generating’ due to the fact that it entails all ‘slow’ knot constituents and it has been carried out using step by step generations in 5 stages. The results approved the research hypothesis as well as the emergence of all knot constituents in step by step generations of the knots, and that there are not any other external constituents considering what is known as the background knot.
To test the hypotheses above, 5 step by step and gradual designing stages were carried out, through which 4 stages are related to knot generation through grinding and generation. During all stages, the generative principle hypotheses including lack of external tools and the completion of knot tools in the presence of the repeated knot units were approved. Also, some other advantages of designing and developing knots using grinding and emphasizing on generation principles are the continuous relations and observation of a permanent relationship between the knots compared to the previous knots and the forthcoming knots as well as assuring the fact that all resulting geometrical roles follow knot regulations, and geometrical figures which do not encompass knots are avoided.