عنوان مقاله [English]
Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, as an Iranian epic poem in its position as a cultural text, is capable to go beyond its literary ground and influence a variety of different fields including visual arts. This autonomy has created a space that has been illustrated in several versions in a historically continuous trend. The artistic manifestations of the illustrated manuscripts of these Shahnamehs have been influenced by various factors. The literary structure of Shahnameh, particularly the imaginary imagery, has the potential to be one of these factors. According to the authors' investigations, Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp (Tabriz II – 1537 AH) has considerably utilized the imaginary imagery (simile, metaphor, metonymy) in its visual expressions and, thus, is considered as a noticeable instance in this regard. Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp contains 258 figures among which six figures that indicate the use of simile, metaphor, and metonymy as their theme were selected for data analysis.
The main goal of investigating and comparing the stories of Shahnameh with visual elements in the figures in Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp was to introduce the imaginary images as the factors that influence and push forward the procedure of visual narration. The library method was used to obtain preliminary material. However, to obtain part of the data, the visual elements of 6 figures – as the version's representatives – were compared with the imaginary images of the same story in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh and other literary texts, following which the "comparison and content analysis" method was used to investigate and infer the technique applied for the graphic translation of the story’s texts and figures of speech. The research questions are:
Do the visual elements in the above-mentioned figures have any relation to the imaginary imagery in the relevant story and other poems in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh? How have the imaginary images of Shahnameh been used in these figures, and what is their function in the visual narration? Here, an example of the imaginary images used in a story of Shahnameh is recited. Zal, an Iranian king of Shahnameh, proposes to marry Princess Rudaba, daughter of the governor of Kabul. Her parents, despite their dissatisfaction, finally agree with this marriage. To express this event, Ferdowsi has utilized simile and metaphor. In some verses of Shahnameh, Rudaba is likened to a tree that her parents, like gardeners, have endeavoured to grow and breed and now, right at the time of her fruition, they are surrendering her to someone else. In the figure entitled "Sindokht talks to Mehrab about Rudaba" (Figure-12), the artisan, considering these verses, has used graphic simile and metaphor very delicately. To create the atmosphere and background of the figure for representing the intended subject, the artisan has used the three agricultural stages of planting, growing, and harvesting. The gardener's working on the budded tree has been used as the representation of the hemistich "we bore so much suffering to plant and irrigate it" and picking the buds from the tree represents "only the wind can count all of our sufferings", the resultant consequence of which is a visual metaphor. The gardener irrigating the budded tree as the breeder is a simile of Sindokht and Mehrab (Rudaba's parents who are present in the figure). The budded tree and the act of picking the buds are the metaphors of Zal and Rudaba who are not present in this figure. An indicative point that enhances the assumption of the artisan's attention to such visual similes and metaphors is the use of the following verse above this part of the figure (Figure-13):"Though not yet come to fruition, we have to give up and surrender her to the enemy / only the wind can count all of our sufferings". Findings of the present work indicate that the imaginary imagery, as a constituent of the literary structure of Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, is the common point of the poems of the story and its illustrated figures in Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp. In order to provide a more complete visual representation of the story, the artisan has utilized the association of the imaginary imagery. The analysis of the figures, the results of which are presented in Table (1), showed that all of the six figures have used the imaginary imagery. In total, there are five visual similes including the figures of "a dragon amidst the cloud", "the fight of the lion and the male zebra", ''the cypress tree and the budded tree", two cypress trees", and "the working gardener". Besides, there are 6 visual metaphors, including "the hawk and the phoenix (Simurgh)", "the river and its surrounding green area", "the fight of the lion and the sheep", "two cypress trees beside each other", "the cypress tree and the budded tree", and "picking of the buds". Moreover, the visual irony of "fastening the waistband" has been used once.