عنوان مقاله [English]
Contemporary art movements today, especially after the industrial and technological revolutions, have altered approaches and perspectives on the concept of art, and in particular the position and functions of the crafts (handicrafts) that is the subject of this research. In the contemporary culture, the concept of handicrafts no longer holds its traditional concepts and functions and as an artistic medium, includes variety of functions from purely conceptual to fully functional and design issues. Handicraft is a field in which, in addition to cultural, identity, and historical factors, design elements such as functional issues, ergonomics and human factors, material recognition, aesthetics, and environmental factors are involved. The lack of conceptual distinction between the types of "design" and “drawing” in the curriculum of handicrafts discipline has led students to enter to the general workshops and then specialized workshops without defining and recognizing the scientific process of designing a product from the definition of need, determining the target group, ideation, evaluation, ergonomics, standards, prototyping, and ultimately production. This causes that students designs become often emotional, empirical, imitative, or suggested designs by instructors and professors not themselves.
The purpose of this article is to study and compare the dealing approach with design issue in the curriculum of handicrafts discipline in the universities of Iran with the New York University and to answer these basic questions that: A) what is the approach and specificity of each of these educational programs in dealing with the design issue? And B) how can research results be used to improve design education in undergraduate handicrafts discipline in Iranian universities? The results of the research indicate that the handicraft education in the art universities of Iran continues to have a traditional approach, with aim of protecting, looking back to its old and rich legacy, teacher-centered and based on the old approach of master-student methods. Therefore, the importance, quantity and quality of presentation of specialized design courses is also less than what is expected. In comparison, the New York University's craft education approach, is avant-garde, progressive, futuristic, creative, student-centered and based on the problem solving methods. Which this is evident in the quantity and quality of presentation of design courses in the curriculum. Alongside these factors, formulation and implementation of a general crafts curriculum in Iranian universities, has led to the allocation of much of the educational capacity of the curriculum for general and diverse courses and workshops with different and unrelated goals and so it limits the presentation of specialized courses such as design and its fundamentals in the curriculum. At the New York University, a specialized approach and perspective has led to specialized design and problem solving courses, with a particular emphasis on creativity. Due to the relatively obsolescence of the present curriculum, the necessity of revising the undergraduate curriculum for handicrafts discipline in Iranian universities is evident. It is suggested that as mentioned in the comprehensive scientific document and road-map of the country, in order to achieve the level of knowledge and skills of the work forces in accordance with the international standards and to meet the needs of society and the domestic and international labor market, the new curriculum and syllabus according to contemporary and specialized requirements and with consideration and attention to the importance of specialized courses like design, are necessary to revise and submit in order to improve the quality of handicrafts higher education.
The research method used in this article is analytical-comparative and the method of analysis is combination of the qualitative and quantitative methods and data collection is based on the library and field research tools.