عنوان مقاله [English]
Kurdi tribes of Khorasan are one of the main carpet weaving tribes among the nomads in Iran. The study of the patterns and motifs used in their carpets reveals that these motifs integrate with the costumes and cultures of each area and are rooted in their ethnic identity. The present research studies the patterns and motifs of Kurdi carpets in Khorasan as well as those in Kurdistan, and aims to answer the following research questions: 1- what is the structure of designs and patterns of Kurdi carpets of Khorasan and carpets of Kurdistan’s nomads? 2- what similarities and differences exist between designs and patterns of Kurdi carpets of Khorasan and those of Kurdistan? Therefore, this study aims to identify the formal structure of the designs and patterns of Kurdi carpets of Khorasan and those of Kurdistan’s nomads in order to find the similarities and differences between them. The research method of the study is descriptive-comparative and the data are analyzed qualitatively. The data is collected in both areas through field and library studies. The data pool consisted of 61 carpets from Khorasan area and 17 carpets from Kurdistan area, among which 15 original samples and 10 original ones were purposively selected to study from Khorasan and Kurdistan areas respectively. The results show that the general style of the motifs and patterns in the carpets of this region and the features like form, corner, medallion and field and border motifs are nomadic, rural, abstract and geometric. The medallion corner, Medallion and Multiple Panel design have been woven the most and the Praying design the least. Among Kurdistan carpets, the most woven carpets depict medallion and corner medallion designs. Some traces of Kurdistan and at times Caucasian carpet forms can be found in Khorasan Kurdi carpets. Corner forms in carpets of each region are made by using right triangles in small sizes in nomadic Kurdistan carpets. With regard to field illustration in the carpets of each region, due to the specific life style in each area, flora and fauna as well as object-based abstract motifs are seen respectively. Moreover, the borders in the carpets of both regions are made with asymmetrical corners based on rural and nomadic styles. Khorasan Kurdi carpets enjoy a higher density in borders in comparison to the carpets of the Kurdistan area. In addition, the division of the borders in Khorasan Kurdi carpets is in forms of three, five, and seven parts, while in Kurdistan carpets, only the three-part form is observed.
With regard to the comparisons, it can be mentioned that similarities and differences exist between the carpets of both regions. Many factors such as the geography of the regions, the life style, the costumes and rituals, the beliefs, the myths and legends and the imposed immigrations caused so many changes in the design and motifs of the carpets in these areas. The results indicate that “Kalle Rousi” and “Jalil” patterns are among similar patterns in both regions. The formal structure of the medallions of the carpets in these two regions also shows that these patterns have been influenced by their original residence areas. The results in terms of differences indicate that the application of big medallion forms and small corners in Kurdistan nomadic carpets is more dominant than the ones in Khorasan Kurdi carpets. Moreover, the use of the abstract form of Fish in Kurdistan nomadic carpets is totally different from the Kalle Ghouch and abstract Zouli motifs in Khorasan Kurdi carpets. The application of narrow border strips and apple flower forms (apple blossoms) as well as Farhad Mirza motif, as the main characteristics of border illustration, are more obvious in Kurdistan nomadic carpets than in Khorasan Kurdi ones. Based on the pattern structure and type of lines which are used, it seems that the mountainous cold environment of Kurdistan area has caused the use of lines with more dense angles in the carpets of this area, compared to the ones from Khorasan region.