عنوان مقاله [English]
The changes that have emerged after the Sassanid defeat by the Muslim Arabs and the religious changes that have emerged in Iran have had a dramatic effect on the arts, industries and techniques of the early Islamic centuries. One of these arts is metal art, which is more evident in various Islamic periods, especially in the Buyid period. The study of the evolution of Iran's art of metalworking during the Islamic period, and especially the period of the Buyids, illustrates the fact that the growth, development and early development of metal art has taken place along the ancient traditions of this land, especially the traditions of the Sassanid period. But combining the ancient traditions with the Islamic worldview has also created a strong spiritual relationship between the artist and the artwork on one hand and a deep and eternal bond between appearance and meaning on the other hand. It should be acknowledged that without the works of pre-Islamic metal art, it is impossible to understand the effect of the Sassanid decorative style on the early Islamic art of Iran. The continuation of the method of decoration of the Sassanid period in the first century of Islamic rule, especially in silverware, is quite evident, to the extent that some of the remaining examples are mistakenly attributed to the Sassanid period, and only the inscriptions on them make them distinct. Thus, there are a number of medals or coins and dishes with symbolic, court, hunting scenes, and some visual subjects that belong to Sassanid art, and on some of them the name of their owner is written in the Pahlavi letters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fact that a large part of the principles and techniques of the Buyid period are derived from the Sassanid-era metalwork, and the artists of this period, using their culture, refer to the Sassanid kings. The most important questions that the present research seeks to answer are as follows: what are the common visual features of Sassanid and Buyid metalwork? What are the most important transmissions from Sassanid metalwork to Buyid examples? And what are the main reasons for the transfer of themes and patterns from Sassanid metal containers to the Buyid works? This research uses a descriptive-analytical and comparative method to compare the metalworks of the Sassanid and Buyid periods. The information is collected using library sources and examples of museum works with an attempt to provide a comparative presentation. Some of the examples of metalwork show the expression and reflection of common motifs and themes, the style and method of art of Sassanid art in the Buyid works. Subsequently, the reasons for the continuity and influence of the Sassanid art have been analyzed. As a result, it became clear that the paintings that have been part of Iranian symbols and used to be drawn as Sassanid motifs, are the main patterns and themes in Buyid metalwork. The most important common visual features in Sassanid and Buyid metalwork include symmetry and contrast, proportionality, enclosed framed designs, formal features, repetitions, and abstract patterns. The most commonly used animal designs are lion, eagle, peacock, goat and cock; vegetable motifs include Aggressive Leaves, Tree, Slavic and Abrasive motifs, and symbolic motifs are the Tree of Life and the role of Gilgamesh which are depicted on the Sassanid and Buyid metalwork. Animals in these two periods are often enclosed within circular frames, and the empty spaces around them are filled with plant designs and abstractions. Common themes include topics such as litigation, court, war, hunting and symbolism.
In response to the questions posed in this study on the role of Sassanid metalwork on the Buyid examples and the important reasons for the transfer of these motifs, it can be said that using the descriptive-comparative method and with reference to visual and library sources, the influence of Sassanid motifs on Buyid metalwork has been investigated and according to the images presented in this research and the presence of feminine and decorative motifs together, it was discovered that the artistic elements used in the Sassanid metalwork can be clearly identified in the Buyid metalwork alongside further common features in the metalwork of these two periods.