گونه شناسی نشانه های سنگ مزار ارامنه گورستان های خویگان علیای فریدون شهر

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 صنایع دستی، دانشکده هنرهای کاربردی، دانشگاه هنر، تهران، ایران.

2 گروه باستان شناسی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.

3 گروه باستان شناسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علو م انسانی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

4 دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران

10.22070/negareh.2022.15260.2911

چکیده

در طول تاریخ، سرزمین ایران همواره پذیرای اقوام و ادیان گوناگون بوده است. این مجاورت در خصوص مسیحیان ارمنی به ویژه از دوره صفویه به این سو، به خوبی در هنر حجّاری ایشان نمودار گشته و سبب آفرینش عناصر هنری مشترک گردیده است. شاهد بر این مطلب، سنگ قبور تصویری و نگاره دار تاریخی ارامنه روستای خویگان علیای فریدون شهر اصفهان است. گنجینه نقوش بکر چهار آرامستان تاریخی ارامنه این روستا به دو دسته تصویرنگار و کتیبه نگار قابل تقسیم است. هدف، شناخت انواع نشانه ها، نمادها و نمودهای روزگار وقت است که در قالب نقوش حکاکی شده بر سنگ قبور، حاوی ناگفته هایی از عمق تاریخ است. این پژوهش تلاشی است برای یافتن پاسخ هایی به این پرسش ها: 1- نشانه های تصویری سنگ مزار ارامنه گورستان های خویگان علیای فریدون شهر شامل چه گونه هایی می شود؟ 2- سنگ مزارهای ارامنه خویگان علیا از منظر فنی، زیبایی شناختی و مفهومی از چه ویژگی های برخوردارند؟ روش تحقیق، توصیفی- تحلیلی و شیوه گردآوری اطّلاعات، ترکیبی از منابع کتابخانه ای- اسنادی و میدانی است و روش تجزیه و تحلیل اطّلاعات، کیفی است. از نتایج تحقیق چنین بر می آید نقوش این مزارها شامل انواع نقوش انسانی، حیوانی، گیاهی، نمادین و ابزار معاش مردمان روزگار وقت می شود که در فضایی معماری گونه احاطه شده اند. نقش زوج (مرد و همسرش) و نقش مشاغلی مانند قالی بافی نیز به وفور یافت می شود. از منظر فنی، سنگ قبور حجیم و یکپارچه با ارتفاع گاه نیم متر بر سطح خاک و به صورت افقی مشاهده می شود. عنوان پرتره های سنگی برای تصاویر قبور منطقه بدون اغراق است و مفاهیم در نگاره های سنگ مزارها، از پیرامون زندگی متوفی الهام گرفته و در واقع بازتابی از زندگی دنیوی و اخروی فرد است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Typology of Armenian Tombstones signs of Khoygan Olya Cemeteries (Village of Fereydunshahr in Isfahan Province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • ruhollah rahmani 1
  • zabihollah bakhtiayari 2
  • Homayon moemeni 3
  • Mehdi Amraei 4
1 Faculty of Functional Arts, Art University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Department of Archeology, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran.
3 Department of Archeology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
4 department of Handicrafts Industry, faculty of art and architecture, Semnan University, Iran
چکیده [English]

Throughout history, the land of Iran has been home to various ethnicities and religions. This proximity to the Armenian Christians, from the Safavid era onwards, has been well reflected in their Masonry art and has led to the creation of common artistic elements. Evidence to this claim is the Armenian historical and Illustrator tombstones in the village of Khoygan Olya Fereydounshahr in Isfahan. One of the most important things that always has secrets from the depths of history is the writings and drawings of the tombs that tell about beliefs and thoughts. Treasures that, like a written document, contain many hidden truths. In the village of Khoygan Olya Fereydunshahr, there are four historical cemeteries in three places of the village called the lower neighborhood, the middle neighborhood and the upper neighborhood, which is for the burial of Armenians in the region. Of these four cemeteries that have been nationally registered, three cemeteries have the most tombstone motifs, many of which are common among the cemeteries, and in some cases, each cemetery has its own motifs. The existence of three churches in this village is one of the unique cases in Iran, which itself indicates the growth of art and architecture in this region. The time period and antiquity of the illustrated graves that are the subject of research is from the Qajar era onwards, and the date of some of the few examples, which often have only an inscription and do not have any painting, dates back to the Safavid period.
The treasure of unknown motifs of the four historical Armenian Cemeteries of this village can be divided into two categories: illustrators and inscriptions the aim is to recognize the various signs and symbols of the past Armenians of the region. These signs in the form of engravings on tombstones contain unspoken facts from the depths of history. This research is an attempt to find answers to these questions: 1- What are the visual signs of Armenian tombstones in the Khoygan Olya cemeteries of Fereydunshahr? 2- What are the technical, aesthetic and conceptual features of the Armenian tombstones of Khoygan Olya? The research method is descriptive-analytical and the method of collecting information is a combination of library-documentary and field resources and the method of data analysis is qualitative. The results of the research show that the motifs of these tombs include all kinds of human, animal, plant, symbolic motifs and livelihoods of the people of the time.
The theme of the motifs can be explored in several groups of decorative, religious and practical tools. Decorative in order to beautify the tombstone, a religious including motifs related to the religion of Christianity and practical tools such as tools and means of livelihood of the deceased. These motifs are surrounded by architectural elements. This architectural space includes elements such as columns, capitals and arches, which are rooted in Armenian art and architecture. In many cases, people stand on a flat platform in group form. In fact, the cemeteries of the region can be called an exhibition of stone portraits. The motif of the couple (husband and wife) and the motif of occupations such as carpet weaving are also found in abundance. From the number of human images, the motifs show that the graves are one-person, two-person, three-person and sometimes four-person.
Animal motifs are more limited in number and variety than other motifs and mostly include animals such as rams, horses, and pigeons. The pattern of the tree of life is the most significant plant of the tombs of the region. In terms of construction techniques, unlike most Muslim tombstones, these works are mostly horizontal. Large monolithic cubic stones that are sometimes not more than half a meter high in the ground and are placed on it. Patterns are seen on the horizontal surface and sometimes on the vertical surface of the cube wall. The general characteristics of the Christian sculptural art of the region include: looking from the front or the whole image (full body and legs in profile), big eyes, continuous eyebrows, showing hand postures, attention to detail, gender distinction and induction of transcendental and religious atmosphere. Narration and showing jobs are of special importance in these graves.
The type of concepts in the tombstones are inspired by the life of the deceased and in fact is a reflection of the worldly and otherworldly life of the person. For example, the most frequently carved carving on tombs is the cross, and after fringes, winged angels are the most important decorative element. These motifs are entirely modeled on the special Christian Armenian ornaments found in their churches. In general, it can be said that manifestations of the art of Christian Armenian painting in the church, book decoration and painting have been depicted in all their artistic elements, including the carving of tombstones.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Typology
  • Tombstone
  • Armenian
  • Cemetery
  • Khoygan Olya

مقالات آماده انتشار، اصلاح شده برای چاپ
انتشار آنلاین از تاریخ 07 تیر 1401
  • تاریخ دریافت: 29 آبان 1400
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 28 فروردین 1401
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 31 فروردین 1401
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 07 تیر 1401