مطالعه‌ای در سیر تحوّل ساختار دیباچه های مرقّع عصر صفوی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه یزد دانشکده هنر و معماری گروه نقاشی

10.22070/negareh.2021.14498.2771

چکیده

هم‌زمان با ظهور مرقّع به عنوان شکل جدیدی از کتاب آرایی، ایدة افزودن دیباچه به ابتدای آن با تأسی از آثار ادبی و تاریخی نیز شکل گرفت. به مرور زمان و تحت تأثیر عوامل متعدّد، ساختار دیباچه ها به تدریج پیچیده تر گردید و مؤلفه های ساختاری جدیدی به آن ها افزوده شد. هدف پژوهش حاضر تعیین سیر تطوّر مؤلّفه های ساختاری دیباچه های مرقّع عصر صفوی است. در حقیقت مسألة اصلی پژوهش حاضر این است که به مرور زمان، ساختار دیباچه های مرقّع دورة صفوی چه تغییری کرده و ماهیّت و میزان این تغییرات چگونه است؟ برای پاسخ به سوال اصلی و رسیدن به هدف پژوهش، از روش توصیفی-تحلیلی، استفاده و برای تبیین هرچه بهتر، از تطبیق و تحلیل محتوا نیز بهره گرفته شد. شیوة گردآوری مطالب به صورت کتابخانه ای است. نحوة تبیین به این صورت است که ابتدا برای بررسی تأثیر و تأثّرات احتمالی، ساختار کلّی دیباچه های ادبی و تاریخی و دیباچه های مرقّع تیموری مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در ادامه با بررسی محتوای دیباچه های صفوی، مؤلفه های ساختاری آن ها استخراج و با هم تطبیق داده شد. سپس از طریق تحلیل محتوای کمّی، نرخ تغییرات ساختارهای اصلی دیباچه ها (تحمیدیه، استدلال، تاریخ و توصیف) در طول زمان مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان می دهد که مؤلّفان دیباچه های مرقّع در دورة صفوی، طرحی نو درانداختند و دو مؤلفة ساختاری - تاریخ هنر و توصیف مرقّع - برای ارتباط هرچه بیشتر دیباچه با مرقّع افزودند. در حقیقت تاریخ تغییرات ساختاری دیباچه های مرقّع صفوی را باید تاریخ حل مسألة ارتباط دیباچه و مرقّع و برقراری تعادل میان دو مؤلفة تاریخ هنر و توصیف مرقّع دانست. در نهایت، تلفیق و تعادل این دو مؤلفه در دیباچة مرتضی قلی شاملو به نتیجه رسید. دیباچه ای که این مسأله را نه از طریق برابری این دو مؤلفه، بلکه با استفاده از صنایع ادبی و زبانی حل کرد. روند شخصی سازی مرقّع ها نیز بر کم رنگ شدن برخی مؤلفه ها مثل ضرورت پرداختن به فلسفة وجودی هنر و مشروعیت بخشی به آن و اهمیت برخی دیگر مانند توصیف مرقّع، بی تأثیر نبوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Study on the Evolution of the Structure of Safavīd Album Prefaces

نویسنده [English]

  • Hanif Rahimi Pordanjani
Yazd University
چکیده [English]

As the evidence shows, writing preface to Persian works is a tradition that goes back to the first literary or historical works after Islam. With the emergence of various literary and historical forms such as a collection of poems, memoirs or dynastic and royal histories, preface writing also evolved and according to the subject or other political and religious factors, different parts of it changed. On the other hand, as a result of the great attention of the Īlkhānīds and subsequent governments, especially the Jalayriāns, to art and artists, numerous literary and historical works were made and illustrated. The Tīmūrīds, by following their example, tried to develop and flourish these arts as much as possible. In the meantime, a new genre called the album, consisting of calligraphic pieces and images, was created, the oldest example of which belongs to the era of Shāhrokh and to Prince Bāysonghor Mirza. Based on this, it seems that it was the Tīmūrīds who first came up with the idea of making an album. Since then, and over the next four centuries, many albums have been made up of calligraphy pieces, images, or a combination of both. Likewise, it seems that adding a preface to the beginning of the album is also a Tīmūrīd innovation. Because the first known preface of the album, which is detached from its album and written by Sharaf al-dīn Ali Yazdī, is the preface of the album of Khājeh Abd al-Qāder, a famous musician and calligrapher in the courts of Jalayeriāns and Tīmūrīds. The preface was probably written between 807 AH and 822 AH. The fact that, on what basis Sharaf al-Dīn Ali Yazdī wrote this preface and whether or not it had a priori pattern is somewhat obscure to us. The second existing album preface was written with a relatively long distance from Yazdī's preface, i.e. in 897 AH, which was also separated from its album and is preserved in the collection of essays of its author, Khājeh Abdollāh Morvarīd. After that, there is no other album prefaces until the first preface of the Safavīd album, that is, the preface of Dust Mohammad (951 AH). In the Safavīd period, we see a coherent tradition of preface writing on albums, which lasted more than a hundred years. Like the literary and historical prefaces, these prefaces were changed under the influence of many factors, and their structure gradually became more complex, and new structural components were added to them. The aim of the present study is to determine the evolution of the structural components of the album prefaces of the Safavīd era. In fact, the main issue of the present study is that over time what structure of the album prefaces of the Safavīd era has changed and what is the nature and extent of these changes? To answer the main question and achieve the purpose of the research, descriptive-analytical method was used and to better explain, adaptation and content analysis were used. The method of collecting materials is library-based. The statistical population of the study, in addition to the two Tīmūrīd prefaces, namely the preface of Ab al-Qāder Marāghī and Mīr Ali Shīrnavāei, includes eight Safavīd prefaces, which are the preface of Dūst Mohammad, the preface of Qutb al-dīn Mohammad Qisi khwān, preface to Shāhqolī Calīph Mohrdār’s Album, the preface of Mālik Daylamī and the prefaces of Shams al-din Mohammad Wasfī, Mohammad Mohsen, Mīrak Salehī and Mortezā Qolī Shāmlū, which were probably written on personal Albums. The explanation is as follows: first, the possible effects and to be affected, the general structure of the literary and historical prefaces and the prefaces of the Tīmūrīd albums are examined. Then, by examining the content of the prefaces of the Safavīd albums, their structural components are extracted and matched. Then, through quantitative content analysis, the rate of change of the main structures of the prefaces (Praise, Argument, History and Description) over time is analyzed. The results show that the authors of the album prefaces in the Safavīd period, came up a new design. Two structural components (art history and description of the album) were added to connect the preface with the album as much as possible. In fact, the history of structural changes in the Safavīd album prefaces is the history of solving the problem of this connection and establishing a balance between these two components. Finally, the combination and balance of these two components was concluded in the preface of Mortezā Qoli Shāmlū. A preface that solved this problem not through the equality of these two components, but through the use of literary and linguistic figures. The personalization of the albums has not been without effect on the fading of some components, such as philosophy of art and its legitimacy, and the importance of others, such as the description of the album.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Preface
  • Album Preface
  • Structure of Album Preface
  • Tīmūrīd Album Preface
  • Safavīd Album Preface

مقالات آماده انتشار، اصلاح شده برای چاپ
انتشار آنلاین از تاریخ 03 آبان 1400
  • تاریخ دریافت: 09 اردیبهشت 1400
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 09 مهر 1400
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 17 مهر 1400
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 03 آبان 1400