عنوان مقاله [English]
Persian painting is one of the most beautiful reflections of Islamic art, and its spiritual revolution roots in values of society which are manifested through Islamic architecture and decorative elements. Evidence supports the fact that painter of “The first sermon of Imam Hassan ibn Ali” painting was under the impression of architecture in the Safavid era. This painting was illustrated by Qasim ibn Ali, who was a contemporary of Bihzad and inferior to him in his artistry, based on Mohammad al-Husaini al Varamini’s masterpiece Ahsan – al-Kibar (1526). This manuscript has 39 Persian paintings and now is in the National library of Russia in Saint Petersburg. Very little is known of Qasim -i Ali’s life, but judging by the less vivid palette of this copy’s miniatures in comparison to those of Tabriz in 1520s, one can assume that he worked in Herat and was still alive in the mind-1520s. During the rule of Timurids, Shiism grew more powerful while Sunni Islam tended to lose influence, which paved the way for the Shiite teachings to prevail further. Eventually, the Safavid Sufi-Shia movement established the Twelver Shiism as the official religion of the country in 1502. The connection between Sufism and exaggerated (ghulat) ideals of Shiism had a profound effect on turning it into a political-religious movement. Although these exaggerated Shia beliefs were not in conformity with the original ones, they were so dynamic that eminent figures such as Sheikh Junayd were encouraged to make efforts, which eventually resulted in the establishment of the government in the 16th century. The Safavid rulers, who took power afterwards, spared no attempt to expand and strengthen it even further. Shiite religion is one of the main foundations of creating artworks among Islamic artists. Shiite principles were based on verses of Quran and narrations of Prophet (p.b.u.h) and his family. In verse 3 of surah Maeidah: “…This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed my favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion…”, Imam Ali (as), who has been directly appointed by Allah and introduced to community of Muslims by prophet Mohammad in Ghadir Khom, is an evidence of necessity of accepting rightful succession of the prophet. Shia believes Allah chose Ali (as) as successor of the holy Prophet who continued his teachings among people after his passing. The method of Shiite manifestation has been varied during Islamic art history in Iran and depended on the ruling governments in different periods (Shiite or non-Shiite). When Shia had restrictions in expressing their beliefs, they had to deliberately turn to symbols and metaphors, but whenever Shia got the opportunity to become the official religion (as in the Safavid era) artists could show their beliefs through architecture and decorative elements easily. Islamic art lays its real nature on two elements, namely wisdom and technique. The main purpose of this research is to conduct a comparative study of the Architecture and the Persian painting of Safavid era through structural and conceptual common elements. Shiite principals dominated on design and ornaments of architecture of this period and Persian painters were influenced by them. Therefore, this research focuses on identifying the thoughts which provided grounds for the creation of such designing and decorative elements on architecture of the Safavid era; as semantic and decorative elements in architecture are one of the significant tools in hands of governors to develop their religious policies and beliefs among people in every period. Iranians have presented some of the greatest artworks based on Shiite view and artists could express beliefs of Shia through visual elements. Imamate and believing in Imam’s right to guide people after the passing of the prophet Mohammad are one of the two most essential and basic beliefs of the Shiism which is the real Islam. Being suppressed and having a strong will to establish Imamate have constantly been remarkable among the Shiite communities. This feature has found its way into art. Using symbols and ironies in the Shiite art has been widespread during different periods in Iranian art and culture. Also using geometries was mostly meant to help recall the manifest intellectual stages of Shiite school in artworks. Research findings show that the connections of precise appropriateness of ornament and symbolic and overt language of sacred geometry of architecture in this painting clearly reflect deep Gnostic thoughts of Shia. This masterpiece was painted based on Shia wise thought and culture.