مطالعه تطبیقی سرپوش‌ها و آسمانه های تصویرشده در نگاره های دوره صفوی با تاکید بر جنسیت(نمونه های موردی: شاهنامه رشیدا و هفت اورنگ جامی)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه معماری، دانشگاه هنرا سلامی، تبریز،، شهرتبریز،استان آذربایجان

2 دانشجوی کارشناسیا رشد معماریا سلامی،دانشگاه هنرا سلامی، شهرتبریز،استان آذربایجان

10.22070/negareh.2020.5510.2510

چکیده

پوشش در دوران مختلف نمادی از فرهنگ و نشان‌دهنده جایگاه اجتماعی افراد و جامعه بوده است و از لحاظ واژه‌ای به جنبه‌های مختلفی اشاره دارد. ایران با توجه به تاریخ چندهزارساله در مورد پوشش‌ها از لحاظ شکل و هندسه، از غنای بالایی برخوردار است که می‌توان آن را در نگاره‌های دوره‌های مختلف نظاره‌گر بود. نکته قابل تأمل در بحث پوشش‌ها عواملی است که از جهات مختلفی بر آنها تأثیر داشته که یکی از مهم‌ترین و اساسی‌ترین آنها جنسیت است. مطالعات پیشین نشانگر آن است که جنسیت در پوشش انسان‌ها تأثیرگذار بوده ولیکن چگونه می‌توان این تأثیرگذاری و تأثیرپذیری را در پوشش نگاره‌های دوره صفوی نیز مشاهده کرد؟ هدف این تحقیق بررسی تأثیرگذاری و تأثیرپذیری پوشش های انسانی و معماری بر یکدیگر در نگاره هاست. لذا سؤال‌های اصلی چنین خواهد بود: 1- آیا تأثیرگذاری و تأثیرپذیری میان سرپوش‌ها و آسمانه‌ها در نگاره های دوره صفوی دیده می‌شود؟ 2-کدام عوامل باعث تأثیرگذاری و تأثیرپذیری میان سرپوش‌ها و آسمانه‌ها می‌شود؟ 3-جنسیت چه نقشی در این تأثیرگذاری و تأثیرپذیری ایفاء می‌کند؟ روش تحقیق این پژوهش، از نوع کیفی و توصیفی-تحلیلی با رویکردی تطبیقی است و شیوه جمع آوری اطلاعات به صورت کتابخانه‌ای است. نتایج تحقیق در نگاره‌ها حاکی از آن است که عوامل متعددی در تأثیرپذیری آن دو بر یکدیگر وجود دارد و جنسیت هم به عنوان یکی از این عوامل نقش پررنگی ایفاء کرده که این را به صورت محسوس در پوشش بناها می‌توان مشاهده کرد و این نشان‌دهنده روابط تنگاتنگی ما بین آنهاست. در این مقاله پوشش‌ها از لحاظ فرم و هندسه مورد بررسی قرار گرفته‌اند و با توجه به وسعت مطالب می‌توان آنها را از جنبه‌های دیگری نیز (از جمله رنگ) مورد مطالعه قرار داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative Study of Covers- "Sarpoosh-ha" with "Asemaneh-ha"-Depicted in Safavid Paintings with Emphasis on Gender (Case Studies: Rashida and Jami's Haft-Awrang)

نویسندگان [English]

  • azita belali oskui 1
  • milad tabaghchi 2
1 architecture faculty, tabriz islamic art university
2 architecture faculty, tabriz islamic art university
چکیده [English]

Coverage has been a symbol of culture in different eras and shows the social status of individuals and society. Iran is located in a special region and because of that; it has a people with different cultures and religions which has led to diversity in the way of life and coverage. According to the history of several thousand years, it has a richness in terms of its shape and geometry that can be seen in paintings of different periods. Coverage has many lexical meanings and refers to different aspects. In this article, two aspects of it are mentioned - which include the human element or the "Sarpoosh", and also the architectural element, which is called "Asemaneh". They have a special importance and place in the Iranian-Islamic culture and it is due to the existence of various religions that Iran is one of the richest civilizations in the world, and therefore it has various and original covers; as inspired by Western artists in different periods. Since clothing is the protector of individuals' privacy and architecture is the protector of society's privacy and the Sarpoosh is known as one of the main components of clothing and the Asemaneh is also known as one of the main components of architecture; both of them are related to humans, so the relationship between them cannot be ignored.
The point to consider in the discussion of coverage is the factors that have affected them in various ways, one of the most important and fundamental of which is gender. Previous studies show that gender has been influential in the coverage of human beings, but how can this influence be observed in the coverage of Safavid period paintings? The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of human and architectural coatings on each other in paintings and to find out the answers to these questions: - Is there an influence between Sarpoosh-ha and Asemaneh-ha in the paintings of the Safavid period? - Which factors influence between them? - What role does gender play in this influence? Paintings in different periods are one of the most significant visual documents through which the painter has helped to recognize different periods by using creativity and special illustration, and of course, by using geometric and Islamic shapes to simplify historical events. Forms and geometries have played an important role in the artist's expressions, which change according to the context, and cause different emotions. In some cases, broken and sharp forms, and in other subjects, soft and curved forms are used. The painter has tried to help express the feelings and knowledge of that time by using the simplest forms and sometimes similarities, which can be seen in the coverings as well as the buildings.
It should be noted that due to the nature of this article, in this study, the main focus is on the coverage depicted in the paintings. The best way to collect this information is to refer to paintings from different periods. In this research, we have tried to compare the Sarpoosh and the Asemaneh by selecting paintings with different contents and examine the existence of this influence on each other and also the geometric and formal relationship between them, and finally how to respond to this influence. Therefore, in this article, by collecting information and visual documents through library research method and selecting the studied samples from Safavid period paintings - with different contents such as epic and mystical - various types of coverings have been achieved and by the method of Semiotic analysis, which is of qualitative and descriptive-analytical type, they have been studied while this influence of human and architectural coverings on each other have been examined comparatively.
 The results of studies conducted in the above paintings indicate that there are several factors regarding the impact of the two on each other, and gender, as one of these factors, has played a colorful role which is noticeable in the paintings and can be observed which shows close relationship between them. In the Asemaneh-ha the presence of men is bold, and rough with majestic forms - which can be called masculine traits - which is also true in the Sarpoosh-ha, in contrast to the spaces where the presence of women has played a prominent role, soft, static and delicate forms - which can be called feminine traits - are used. It should be noted that in this article, coverage has been studied in terms of form and geometry, and due to the breadth of the content, they can be studied from other aspects (including color, etc.) as well.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gender
  • Sarpoosh
  • Asemaneh
  • Paintings
  • Rashida
  • Haft-Awrang
  • Safavid