عنوان مقاله [English]
Khorasan’s architecture is famous in simply created forms in the early Islamic period. From 4th AH decoration flourished in Iran architecture and Stucco decoration came an important decoration part in the buildings. Stucco decoration, which was used in the Khorasan's monuments, were as basic decoration element in the monuments such as Robat Sharaf from Saljuq period and Faryoumad mosque attributed to Saljuq, Khwarazmian, Ilkhanid periods. The similarities and differences of the decorations of these two monuments in the Great Khorasan have always been interested for the experts. In this research, we try to answer such questions about the similarities or differences of the stucco decoration in Robat Sharaf and Faryoumad in terms of types of decorations and their compositions. In this study, features and changes from Saljuq to Ilkhanid in stucco decoration are investigated by Descriptive-analytical and analyzed by comparative methods from two monuments in Greater Khorasan. Literature review and field survey was the method of data collecting. According to the importance of these two monuments from Khorasan; these are selected as a criterion and indicator of changes occurred in the decorative in Khorasan. In comparative studies indicated that stucco decorations in Robat Sharaf are formed in “low relief” and “medium relief” which in addition Faryoumad has “High relief”. A combination of bricks and stucco motifs covers the most parts of Robat Sharaf which in contrast stucco is the common technique used to cover inner surfaces of Faryoumad. Also, Faryoumad has muqarnas which is decorated by stucco. “Ajed-e Kari” or honeycombed patterns are a common technique in Saljuq and Ilkhanid stucco; there is one place was designed by honeycombed patterns in Rabat Sharaf, but this technic was used in a great extent in Faryoumad stucco decoration.
Plant patterns covered a great extent of surfaces in Robat Sharaf which is in spiral composition. Normally, wavelike composition or a combination of the wavelike and spiral composition of Plant patterns were used at Faryoumad. Overall, arabesque decorations are widespread in Robat Sharaf. Geometric patterns are the widespread stucco decoration in Faryoumad as well as inscription ornaments. Geometric patterns were used in Robat Sharaf decorations but they are simply designed and dressed by arabesque patterns in some space. In variety, geometric patterns are complicated and dressed by floriated ornaments in Faryoumad stucco decorations. Inscription ornaments are Kufic in Mehrabs of Robat Sharaf are knotty and It has one Sols inscription in the southwest front. in contrast, Kufic and Sols inscriptions are used in a verity in Faryoumad including arabesque and floriated ornaments on the behind of inscriptions. Totally, Faryoumad has more than 12 different inscription ornaments which can make it as one of the unique inscription ornaments from stucco decoration.
Results show stucco decorations of Robat Sharaf and Faryoumad are similar in techniques, pattern and motifs but in some detailed differences which present the growth and development of Stucco arts in this several centuries. In Faryoumad Jame mosque high relief stucco has been added to the rest of Saljuq technics. To make a decoration brick and stucco were used in a combination in the Saljuq period, but in the Ilkhanid period the method has changed and gypsum came to the main element for covering the bricks and decoration. Motifs are commonly herbal in Robat Sharaf stucco decoration, but in Faryoumad combination of the plant and geometric motifs were used, also the combination of geometric pattern with inscription has become more commonplace. Moreover, the geometric knot is one of the commonplace pattern in Ilkanid stucco decoration. In conclusion, motifs in Faryoumad are more complicated and more delicate than Robat Sharaf, and motifs in combination with a decorated inscription made an enrichment surface.