بررسی تناسب و ترکیب بندی سنگ مزارهای با نقش مایه فرشته درآرامستان ارامنه جلفای اصفهان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مدرس دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی- واحد شاهین شهر

2 دانشگاه هنر اصفهان

چکیده

سنگ مزارهای آرامستان ارامنه‌ی جلفای اصفهان با گنجینه‌ای از نگاره‌های فرشتگان و نقوش دیگر، از دوران صفوی و در طی چند قرن بستر هنر آفرینی هنرمندان و حجاران بوده است‌‌، که با استفاده از تناسبات، ترکیب بندی ها و شکل‌های گوناگون ایجاد شده‌اند. ارزش‌ روابط موجود در سنگ‌ مزارها و کمبود پژوهش‌های صورت‌گرفته اقتضا می‌کند تا در عرصه‌ی نگهداری و بررسی آن تلاش بیش‌تری صورت گیرد. روابط هندسی مشخصی در تقسیم بندی کادر سنگ قبور ارامنه و تناسب های آن وجود دارد و اهدف این پژوهش بررسی روابط در ترکیب بندی و تناسبات سنگ مزارهای با نقش مایه فرشته در آرامستان ارامنه و بررسی انواع نقوش فرشتگان به کار رفته و ریشه یابی آن در نقوش باستانی ایرانی و مسیحیت(ارامنه) است. در این ارتباط پرسش هایی مطرح است: 1- چه تناسب ویژه ای میان ابعادکادر نقش فرشته ها به کادر کلی سنگ مزارها وجود دارد؟ 2-ترکیب بندی، قاب بندی و میزان برجستگی نقش فرشته ها در سنگ مزارها به چه صورت هستند؟ 3- کدام مفاهیم در ریشه نقش مایه فرشتگان سنگ مزارهای ارامنه قرار دارد؟ 4- چه عناصر تصویری دیگری با نقوش فرشته ها، در سنگ قبور ارامنه جلفا ترکیب شده‌اند؟ این مقاله بر آن است با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و با دیدگاهی هندسی، به بررسی سنگ قبور با نقوش فرشتگان در این آرامستان تاریخی بپردازد که شیوه جمع آوری آن میدانی و کتابخانه‌ای است. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می دهد که تصاویر فرشتگان قبرستان ارامنه تقریبا به یک اندازه متاثر از مسیحیت(ارامنه) و هنر ایران دوره باستان و دوره اسلامی است. همچنین تناسب خاصی میان ابعاد کادر نقش فرشتگان درسنگ مزارها وجود دارد که درچهاردسته کلی(لچکی/چهارتایی-چلیپایی/ تکی /جفتی-قرینه) ایجاد شده اند. حجاری سنگ مزارها به دو شیوه‌ی گود- برجستگی و فرم قاب بندی‌ها به فرم قوس مازه‌دار، تیزه‌دار و مستطیلی می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Research on proportion and composition of Angel motifs in the head stone of the Armenian of Julfa - Isfahan

نویسندگان [English]

  • bahar jahanmard 1
  • safoura rouhi 2
1 Professor of Islamic Azad University
2 Assistant Professor Art University of Isfahan
چکیده [English]

Headstone of Armenians in Julfa- Isfahan with treasure of angels painting and other motifs have been a bedrock for art creating of artists and sculptures during centuries since the Safavid era, which were created in different compositions and forms. The value of relations in headstones and lack of conducted researches a greater effect in its study and maintenance. There are certain geometric relationships in the division of graves frame. The purpose of this research is to investigate these relationships in the composition and proportions of stone graves with the role of the angel in the Armenian and to investigate the types of angels and its rooting in ancient Iranian and Christian (Armenian) motifs. In this connection, the question is what are the proportions and elements of the composition and structure of stone quarries, and which includes the concepts and roots of the images. Most of researchers have paid attention to history of celebrities who have slept in cemetery, but a few studied them from artistic perspective. This article, for the first time, is conducted to analyze the Angel motifs on Armenians headstones through geometric method, which have been done according to field research and library studies. This paper tries to study the stone of graves with angelic motifs in this historic with descriptive-analytical method and with a geometric view. The method of collecting documents and images based on field research and library studies has been carried out. With imaging and collecting a lot of head stones motifs, various samples are selected and categorized, then their geometric relationships have been evaluated one by one. Their meaning, forming ratio, framing type, and way of drawing of angels on headstones have been studied. At last, studies show there are specific proportion between dimensions of angles framing and general framing of headstones. The gravestones reflect the ancestors' thought of respect for the dead who, in order to erase them, handed over the corpses to one of the four elements (wind, water, fire and soil). The burial of the dead in the soil was one of the rituals that created the tombstones. These stones, in addition to protect the dead from environmental damages, overcame the fear of the ghosts to gain eternal peace by dwelling in them. Tombstones together became one of the reasons for the emergence of cemeteries in cities. In the past, many neighborhoods in Isfahan had separate cemeteries, such as: "Toghchi, darbe imam, Takhtefoulad , Jews and Armenians." The Armenian Cemetery of Jolfa is one of the famous and historical cemeteries was created by the Armenian emigrants to Iran during the Safavid era. They are considered to be symbolic intermediaries between man and the celestial forces, and hence the geographical artifacts of the lines were broken. The role of angels is one of the important arrays of these stones, which were a divine message and a message of good spirits. Designs based on Iranian beliefs and Armenian-Christian religious beliefs over a period of several hundred years in various shapes and sizes.
This paper seeks to achieve these goals, by formally categorizing, measuring, implementing practices, staffing dimensions, gravimetric proportions, and explaining and evaluating them, based on field research to examine composition and proportions and also deals with the role of angelic themes in Armenian and tries to evaluate the types of angels' motifs used in the tombs and their rooting and comparative study with the Islamic designs of Takhte foulad. -What is the specific proportion of the dimensions of the role of angels to the general cadre of tombs? - What are the composition, framing and extent of the role of angels in gravestones? Due to the historical and artistic value of Armenian tombs, the lack of maintenance of tombs and the restoration of demolished stones that require more care, as well as the awareness of the risk of stone destruction by human-natural factors and the lack of research. Careful in the geometry of the tombstones it seems necessary to examine in this study the potency of the carvings and the geometry of the forms, framing, and practices of the paintings of these forgotten legacies. To be revealed. Collecting and studying their treasures may be a source of inspiration and a model for other designers and artists. At the end, the analysis showed that the images of the angels of the Armenian cemetery are almost equally influenced by Christianity (Armenians) and Iranian art (ancient and Islamic period). Also, there is a specific fit between the dimensions of the role of the angels in the groves, which have been created in general (Lachaki / Quadrilateral-Chalipai / Single / Pair-Symmetry). Headstones cravings have been done in two ways: round and low bumps. Their framing are in from of lean arc, sharp arc and rectangular.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Angels’ motifs
  • Stone graves
  • headstones
  • cemetery Armenian of Julfa- Isfahan