عنوان مقاله [English]
Usage of geometry in Iranian painting is as obvious as other traditional Iranian arts. Meanwhile, some analysts believe that Iranian painters, especially the Herat school painters, have used the knowledge of geometry in a secret way in their works; known as the "Hidden Geometry". "Hidden Geometry" is very close to the "Sacred Geometry" conceptually, but "Hidden Geometry" is, in fact, the use of a defined and latent geometric structure in the work in order to create a coherent whole, so that through it the artistic expression of the work will be a multi-layer and the audience uses its meanings as much as it can go to the depth of the image. This covert application, through the creation of distinct geometric divisions and the placement of visual elements of narration and the shaping of the transmitter symbols of the artist's hints, while reinforcing the theme of the work, leads to indirect transmission of the concept to the audience too. Few researches which have been done in this regard are often related to the Herat school and researchers, despite the achievement of the specific layout methods of the books of that era, have not yet reached a comprehensive set of guidelines for determining a definitive method for applying hidden geometry, and this has created the ground for doubting the use of this geometrical method in Persian paintings. One of the earliest studies on this subject is the study of Alexander Papadopoulo in his book "Islam and Muslim Art" which suggested the idea of using a spiral form to locate human figures in Iranian paintings. Since then, and over the last two decades, Iranian researchers have been paying more attention to this issue. Khashayar Ghazizadeh, in his article "Hidden Geometry in the Illustrations of Kamal Al-Din Behzad", describes the use of circular, spiral, and grid infrastructures in two paintings by Behzad. He seems to be the first one who recognized the term "hidden geometry". One of the remarkable researches on the subject is the book "Dva Mira Vostochnoi Miniatiury" by Mais Nazarli. The author in this book while innovating new concepts and terms like "Hidden Motif" and "Prime Motif", points to the hidden function of geometry and the latent proportions system in components of the painting of the Tabriz school, based on the Sufi ideas governing the court of Shah Ismail. This research in order to emphasize and reinforce the theory of “Hidden Geometry” while explaining theoretical foundations and objective findings, as well as examining the historical context of the use of geometry in the art of painting in Iran, by library method with the analytical-descriptive approach, analyzes another work of this period which is ascribed to the great artist of that era, Kamal al-Din Behzad. The work with the title of “Demonstrating the Speech of Ascetics to the Troops by Eskandar” also has a signature of another artist; Ghasemali. The paper looks to answer the question that; Can the scientific foundations and certain objective reasons for the existence of hidden geometry be gained in this work? Are obtained geometric evidences in the research merely due to the subjective perception or spiritual experience of the painter who reflected them unconsciously in his work? Is the structure of composition of hidden geometry traceable in the illustrations with few or no architectural elements as well? What is the structure of the hidden geometry in this image? This illustration which includes very few geometrical elements like architecture belongs to the manuscript of Khamse-ye-Nezami that is kept in the British Museum Library. This research, while explaining the extent of knowledge of geometry at that time and the extent of the familiarity of artists and craftsmen with the knowledge of geometry and geometricians such as Ghiasuddin Jamshid Kashani, will present fairly rigorous results in relation to the application of hidden geometry as defined here. The research shows how the painter consciously and purposefully used the hidden geometry in regard to placement of different elements of illustration, creation of the visual and conceptual relation between them, and the application of the symbolic geometrical structure in this work. It also shows that the artist founded the frame and bases of his work with the usage of the common principles and rules of the science of geometry which have been used by the Iranians over the past centuries; namely the drawing of the basic circle, the indicator square and then creation of a static rectangle. In addition, the research describes how the artist's mystical environment had influenced the way geometrically symbolic elements were used, as well as the relationships between these elements and the resulting divisions to convey mystical and ethical themes. But despite all the results, determining a specified applied rule for hidden geometry in the illustrations of this period requires a more comprehensive, systematic and methodical research.