بررسی هندسه پنهان در مکتب نگارگری هرات؛ با تاکید بر نگاره «به لشکر نمودن اسکندر، سخن گوشه نشینان را»

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای دانشکده هنرهای زیبا- دانشگاه شانگهای- شانگهای

2 گروه تاریخ هنرچین

چکیده

تحلیلگران معتقدند که نگارگران و بویژه نگارگران مکتب هرات از دانش هندسه بصورت رمزگونه و پنهانی در کار خود استفاده کرده اند و این نحوه کاربرد را «هندسه پنهان» نامیده اند. «هندسه پنهان» در واقع بکارگیری ساختار هندسی معین و مستتر در اثر به منظور ایجاد یک کل منسجم است، به نحوی که بواسطه آن، بیان هنری اثر چند لایه میشود و مخاطب تا میزانی که به عمق تصویر راه یابد از معانی آن بهره می برد. اندک تحقیقات انجام شده در این باره بیشتر به مکتب هرات مربوط است. در این پژوهش تبیین مبانی نظری و یافته های عینی و نیز بررسی زمینه‌های تاریخی کاربرد هندسه در هنر نگارگری ایران و بررسی آنها در نگاره «به لشکر نمودن اسکندر سخن گوشه نشینان را» انجام می شود. لذا هدف این پژوهش ضمن بررسی هندسه پنهان، چگونگی استفاده از ساختار هندسی حساب شده و هدفمند و هماهنگ با مضمون روایت در نگاره مذکور می باشد. بدین منظور سوالهای اصلی پژوهش عبارتند از: هندسه پنهان در نگاره مورد نظر کدام است؟ آیا نگارگر نگاره مذکور از هندسه پنهان به صورت هدفمند و در جهت مضمون نگاره استفاده نموده است؟ روش تحقیق در این پژوهش توصیفی- تحلیلی و روش گردآوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ای است. نتیجه این پژوهش نشان میدهد که نگارگران هرات چگونه از هندسه پنهان بطور آگاهانه و هدفمند، به منظور جانمایی عناصر مختلف تصویر و ایجاد ارتباط بصری و مفهومی میان آنها و کاربست نمادین ساختار هندسی مورد استفاده، بهره برده اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of hidden geometry in the painting of Harat school, With emphasis on illustration "demonstrating the speech of ascetic to the troops by Eskandar"

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Malekpaein 1
  • Zhang Changhong 2
1 PhD student of college of Fine Arts- Shanghai University- Shanghai
2 Department of Art History
چکیده [English]

Abstract:
Usage of geometry in Iranian painting is as obvious as other traditional Iranian arts. Meanwhile, some analysts believe that Iranian painters, especially the Herat school painters, have used the knowledge of geometry in secret way in their work, and this kind of applying of geometry are called "Hidden Geometry". The concept of "Hidden Geometry" in conceptual aspect is very close to the "Sacred Geometry", But "Hidden Geometry" is, in fact, the use of a defined and latent geometric structure in work in order to create a coherent whole, so that through it the artistic expression of work will be a multi-layer and the audience uses its meanings as much as he could go to the depth of the image. This covert application, through the creation of distinct geometric divisions and the placement of visual elements of narration and the shaping of the transmitter symbols of the artist's hints, while reinforcing the theme of the work, leads to indirect transmission of the concept to the audience too. Few researches which have done in this regard is related often to the Herat school and researchers, despite the achievement of the specific layout methods of the books of that era, have not yet reached a comprehensive set of guidelines for determining a definitive method for applying hidden geometry, and this has created the ground for doubting the use of such this geometrical method in Persian paintings. One of the earliest studies on this subject is the study of Alexander Papadopoulo in his book "Islam and Muslim Art" which suggested the idea of using a spiral form to locate human figures in Iranian paintings. Since then, and over the last two decades, Iranian researchers have been paying more attention to this issue. khashayar Ghazizadeh, in his article " Hidden Geometry in the Illustrations of Kamal Al-Din Behzad", describes the use of circular, spiral, and grid infrastructures in two paintings of Behzad paintings. He seems to be the first one who recognized the term "hidden geometry". One of the remarkable researches is the book "Dva Mira Vostochnoi Miniatiury" by Mais Nazarli. In this book, he while innovation new concepts and terms like "Hidden Motif" and "Prime Motif", points to the hidden function of geometry and the latent proportions system in components of the painting of Tabriz school, based on the Sufi ideas governing the court of Shah Ismail. This research also, in order to emphasize and reinforce the theory of “Hidden Geometry”, while explaining theoretical foundations and objective findings, as well as examining the historical context of the use of geometry in the art of painting in Iran, by library method with the analytical - descriptive approach, analyzes another of the works of this period which is ascribed to the great artist of that era, Kamal al-Din Behzad, but also has a signature of other artist; Ghasemali, with the title; «demonstrating the speech of ascetic to the troops by Eskandar», and looking to answer this question that; Can the scientific foundations and certain objective reasons for the existence of hidden geometry be gained in this work? Are obtained geometric evidences in the research merely due to the subjective perception or spiritual experience of the painter who was reflected unconsciously in his work? Can in the illustrations which there is no architectural element or there is low, also find the structure of composition of hidden geometry? What is the structure of the hidden geometry in this image? The mentioned illustration which includes very low geometrical elements like architecture is belonged to the manuscript of Khamse-ye-Nezami that nowadays is kept in British Library Museum. This research, while explaining the extent of knowledge of geometry at that time and the extent of the familiarity and relation of artists and craftsmen with the knowledge of geometry and geometrician such as Ghiasuddin Jamshid Kashani, will present fairly rigorous results in relation to the application of hidden geometry as defined here. This research shows that how painter, consciously and purposeful used the hidden geometry in order to placement of different elements of illustration and creation of the visual and conceptual relation between them and to the applying of the symbolical geometrical structure in this work. It also shows that the artist founded the frame and bases of his work with the usage of the common principles and rules of the science of geometry which have been used by Iranian over the past centuries, which was the drawing of the basic circle and indicator square and then the creating a static rectangle. But despite all these results, determining of the Specified applied rule for hidden geometry in the illustrations of this period requires more comprehensive systematic methodical research.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Illustrating
  • Harat Schoole
  • Structure
  • Hidden Geometry
  • Khamseh-ye-Nezami
  • Ghasemali