عنوان مقاله [English]
Rouyan district is one of the famous and historic regions of Iran, in general, and Mazandaran, in particular, which has had a very important role throughout Iranian history in the Islamic era and in the establishment of Alavian Dynasty in northern Iran and in the fight against the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates. Governors of this region minted gold and silver coins. Padosbani dynasty ruled in Rouyan for nearly one thousand years; from 22 until 1006 AH. This area, which has been referred to as Rouyan, Rostamdar, and Mahal Salas, contains a relatively large number of tomb monuments that date back to the beginning of the ninth century. Over the time different decorations have been added. In the district of Rouyan, the Shi'ism has maintained prevalence since the 9 century AH. and thereafter, many burial monuments were built in the area. An important part in the construction of various Islamic-era monuments is their decoration. In this research following observation of 47 historical monuments in the region, 8 buildings of high importance were selected. Since the time of their construction, these works have been renovated and decorated several times. For example, the paintings within them belong to the Qajar period, Persian poems belong to the 11th and 12th centuries, plastering belongs to the Qajar period, and the inscriptions of this collection belong to the time of their construction. Despite the historical significance of these monuments, limited studies have been carried out so far. The destruction caused by natural and human factors in these valuables historical and cultural monuments has led to destruction of many paintings within the monuments, thus in order to preserve these valuable historical works and to introduce the decorations that have been used in these buildings, which may be considered as reflections of the religious thoughts and thoughts of the people of the region, the writer has examined the decorative arrays of these monuments. With regard to the importance of these historical monuments, the questions of this research are: What are the reasons for using these decorative motifs? What are the materials and decorative motifs used in the buildings? In this research, the research method is descriptive-analytic. The data collection method is based on library research and field study of the burial monuments. These monuments, which have been built in accordance with the existing methods of tomb construction in the ninth and tenth centuries by one or two masons and architects, are typologically very similar to each other and belong to a relatively short period. Historical sources point to a widespread change in the region in the ninth century AH and the conversion of religion from Sunni Islam (Shafi'i) to Shia Islam. It is possible to figure out that the ruling class began to construct magnificent buildings for the descendants of the Imams in the region following the advent of these changes in beliefs in order to take a step towards accelerating the acceptance of Shi'ism among the inhabitants of the region. People of the region during this time decorated and embellished these monuments. In this research, the author visited these historical monuments, recorded and classified decorative elements. The results show that various kinds of methods were used. Decorative methods consist of brickwork, stucco, tilework, woodworking, painting, calligraphy with tile and lime carving. In these methods, geometric, vegetative and animal designs are used. Studies show that due to Shi'a prevalence in the region from the 9th century onwards, the decorative elements used in the monuments reflect the Shiite thought of the Muslim artists. In these burial monuments, Shiite themes are represented in the form of inscriptions, motifs and religious symbols such as lion, sun, and cedar. In the belief of the people, lion played a major role in the plain of Karbala and guarded the martyrs after the martyrdom until the time of burial, which led to its perceptible presence at every ceremony. In the Islamic period lion was a symbol of power and courage, and gradually became one of the traditional elements of the new sect. Imam Ali (AS) was dubbed as the “lion of Allah" and lion became a symbol of his courage, and also the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was referred to in religious discourses with the symbol of Sun (Shams). In relation to plants, it should be noted that God in the Quran mentions many trees. In Islamic culture, the tree is the symbol of life, knowledge and divine blessing which has been mentioned in the Quran; the role of flowers and plants in monuments such as burial monuments has been an allegory of trees and paradise plants. In this way, the Muslim artist used motifs and elements in tilework, painting, and calligraphy not only as decoration, but also to disseminate his religious thoughts.