معرفی و معناشناختی تزیینات بناهای آرامگاهی ولایت رویان مازندران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه باستان شناسی دانشگاه نیشابور

چکیده

منطقه کجور در غرب استان مازندران و در دل کوه‌های البرز مرکزی قرار دارد که در دوره اسلامی به لحاظ تاریخی و مذهبی نقش بسیار مهمی در شکل‌گیری حکومت علویان در شمال ایران و مبارزه با خلفای اموی و عباسی داشته است. این منطقه که در طی زمان با نام‌هایی همچون پدشخوارگر رویان، رستمدار و محال ثلاث نیز از آن یاد شده است؛ دارای تعداد نسبتا زیادی بنای آرامگاهی است که تاریخ آن‌ها به ابتدای قرن 9 ه.ق به بعد بر‌می‌گردد و در دوره‌های مختلف تزییناتی به آن افزوده شده است. با توجه به اهمیت این مقابر تاریخی، سوالات این پژوهش عبارت است از: 1- مواد و عناصر تزیینی به‌کار رفته در بناهای آرامگاهی منطقه رویان چیست ؟ 2- دلایل استفاده از این نقش مایه‌های تزیینی در این بناها چیست؟ این پژوهش مبتنی بر مطالعه کتابخانه‌ای و بازدید میدانی از مقابر و عکاسی و ثبت ویژگی‌های آن‌ها و طبقه‌بندی عناصر تزیینی آن‌ها است. نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که در مقابر این منطقه از عناصر مختلف مانند آجرکاری، گچبری، کاشی‌کاری، چوب-کاری، نقاشی، آهک‌بری و خوشنویسی در جهت تزیین استفاده شده است. نقوش به‌کار رفته شامل نقوش هندسی، گیاهی، حیوانی است. بررسی‌ها نشان می‌دهد که با توجه به رواج تشیع در منطقه از سده 9 ه.ق به بعد، نقش‌مایه‌های به‌کار رفته در مقابر نیز به نوعی بازتاب‌دهنده اندیشه و تفکر شیعی هنرمند مسلمان است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Introduction and semantic of decoration of funerary monument in Royan; Mazandaran province

نویسنده [English]

  • parastoo masjedi
Department of Archaeology, University of Neyshabur, Khorasan
چکیده [English]

Rouyan district is one of the famous and historic regions of Iran, in general, and Mazandaran, in particular, which has had a very important role during Iranian history in the Islamic era and in the establishment of Alavian Dynasty in northern Iran and in the fight against the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates. Governors of This region mint gold and silver coins. Padosbani dynasty ruled in Rouyan from 22 until 1006 A.H. near one thousand year. This area, which has been referred to as such names as Rouyan, Rostamdar, and Mahal Salas, contains a relatively large number of tomb monuments that date back to the beginning of the ninth century. Over the time different decoration added. In the province of Royan from the 9 century AH, the Shi'ism prevalence. And thereafter, many burial monuments were built in the area. An important part in the construction of the various Islamic era monuments is their decor. In this research after the visit of 47 historical monuments of the region, 8 buildings of the high important were selected. Since the time of construction, these works have been renovated and decorated several times. For example, the paintings within this period belong to the Qajar period, Persian poems belonging to the 11th and 12th centuries, the plastering belong to the Qajar period, and the inscriptions of this collection belong to the time of their construction. Despite the historical significance of this monument, limited studies have been carried out so far. Due to the destruction caused by natural and human factors in these valuables historical and cultural monuments, which lead to destruction of many paintings within the monuments, the writer, in order to preserve these valuable historical works and the introduction of decorations The monuments that have been used in these buildings, which are a kind of reflection of the religious thoughts and thoughts of the people of the region, have examined the decorative arrays of this monument. With regard to important of this historical monument, the questions of this research are: What are the reasons for using these decorative motives? What are the materials and decorative motives used in buildings? In this research, the research method is descriptive-analytic. The data collection method is based on the library's study and field survey of the burial monuments. These monuments are typologically very similar to each other and belong to a relatively short period, which have been built in accordance with the existing methods of tomb construction in the ninth and tenth centuries by one or two masons and architects. Historical sources point to a widespread change in the ninth century A. H. in the region and the conversion of religion from Sunni Islam (Shafi'i) to Islamic Shia. It is possible to figure out that the ruling class began to construct magnificent buildings for the descendants of the Imams in the region with the advent of these changes in beliefs in order to take a step towards accelerating the acceptance of Shi'ism among the inhabitants of the region. People of region during the time decorated and embellished these monuments. At this research author visited these historical monuments and recorded, and classified decorative elements. Result show that various kind of methods used. Decorative methods consist of brick working, plaster working, tile, woodworking, painting, calligraphy with tile and lime working. At these methods geometric, herbal and animal design used. Studies show that due to Shi'a prevalence in the region from the 9th century onwards, the decorative elements used in the monument reflect the Shiite thought of the Muslim artist. In these burial monuments, Shi'ism themes are represented in the form of inscriptions, motifs and religious symbols such as lion, sun, and cedar. In the belief of the people, lion played a major role in the plain of Karbala and guarded the martyrs after the martyrdom until the time of burial, and at every ceremony there was a perceptible presence. In the Islamic period, the role of lion was a symbol of power and courage, and gradually became one of the traditional elements of the new sect. Imam Ali (AS) was renamed into the lion of Allah and lion became a symbol of his courage, and also the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in the religious thought mentioned with the symbol of Sun / Shams. In relation with plants, it should be noted that God in the Quran mention many trees. In Islamic culture, the tree is the symbol of life, knowledge and divine blessing which has been mentioned in the Quran; the role of flower and plant in monuments such as burial monuments has been an allegory of trees and paradise plants. In this way, the Muslim artist used motifs and elements such as tile work, painting, and calligraphy not only in decoration, but also in disseminating his religious thoughts.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Architecture
  • Decoration
  • Monument
  • Rouyan
  • Mazandaran