عنوان مقاله [English]
Inlay (Khatam) is one of the most significant Iranian wooden traditional arts. In this profession, objects’ surfaces are covered and decorated with the combination of wood, metal, bone and such materials based on geometric shapes. As it is known, geometric shapes are among the fundamental and common patterns in traditional arts. The use of such geometric shapes is similar and common in many related arts disciplines. However, Inlay is one of the few disciplines in which its patterns and details of the construction are inspired by geometric shapes.
Geometric shapes are technically called “Golbandi” in the art of inlay. For creating “Golbandi”, the materials are first cut off with proportional angles and edges, once the pieces are aligned next to each other according to the scheme, the so-called “khatampichi” or binding khatam begins. In general, inlay is divided into three general categories: “khatam Moraba” (Square inlay), “khatam Shesh” (Six inlay) and "khatam Gereh” (Knot inlay), which is based on difference in the cutting of primary materials in Golbandi. In fact, the cutting angles of inlay materials lead to the creation of sides with different cross-sectional area, and these three types of inlay distinguish in appearance. For instance, the cutting of materials in Square inlay is based on square and rectangle; in Six inlay, the cut is based on equilateral triangle and rhombus; in Knot inlay, it is based on isosceles triangle with (acute and obtuse angles) and pentagon geometric shapes.
The method of constructing Knot inlay is generally more complicated and difficult than the other types of inlay. The Knot inlay is usually formed on the basis of geometric designs (acute and obtuse angles), and the cutting angle of materials is also different. “Gereh Panj” is one of the most commonly used patterns, which is the basis for the formation of patterns in Knot inlay and is observed in almost all types of Knot inlay. Accordingly, the subject of this paper is dedicated to the study of “Golbandi” construction techniques in “Gereh Panj” inlay and seeks to answer three questions as follows:
1- What are the general characteristics of a knot inlay, and what is its distinction from other types of inlay?
2- What are the stages of designing and constructing of a “Gereh Panj” inlay?
3- How does the color combination apply to the creation of a “Gereh Panj” inlay?
For this purpose, while considering the main characteristics of Knot inlay, the geometric drawing method, preparing materials, stages of “Golbandi” and “Khatampichi”, combining variation and coloring in the “Gereh Panj” inlay have been investigated. In the preparing materials section, the author describes the calculation methods of inlay materials. The main stages of the production of the “Gereh Panj” inlay are illustrated as specific linear drawings throughout the article. This paper is written using the descriptive-analytical method and relies on library studies and field research.
As mentioned above, Knot inlay is formed based on geometric shapes. However, the creation of “Golbandi” is different from drawing of the geometric shapes. In order to construct a “Gereh Panj” inlay, the following materials are required: one “Shamseye Panj”, five “Kardi” and five “Baghal Shesh”. All materials need to be rubbed and prepared before “Golbandi”. The most important part is the precise and accurate adjustment of the knot components in order to create a regular polygon knot. Furthermore, the materials used in Knot inlay are different and have higher quality. On the other hand, the variation in the Knot inlay can be achieved by creating a variety of materials’ color scheme. Colors of inlay components affect final color of “Gholbandi”. The Knot inlay is made up of wood with natural colors and the phenomenon of wood staining, which is very common in the production of other types of inlay, is very rare.
Layers applied around the sides of “Gereh Panj” or other components of Knot inlay are those that are commonly used in “Gholbandi” construction. Of course, in some cases, depending on the location of “Gereh Panj”, the layers may not be applied to all sides of a knot. As it is known, the use of layers is one of the characteristics of the Shiraz inlay.
The research results demonstrate that “Gereh Panj” is used in all kinds of Knot inlay. The appearance of “Gholbandi” in Knot inlay is based on geometric shapes. In addition, several different ways of binding “Gereh Panj” are explored in the context. All materials for construction of binding “Gereh Panj” should be natural with high quality. As mentioned that “Gereh Panj” is used in all types of Knot inlay, the color scheme of “Ghereh Panj” has a huge impact on “Gholbandi” in other kinds of Knot inlay patterns.
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